2018年 第35卷 第3期
Quark interactions with topological gluon fields in QCD can yield local P and CP violations which could explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our universe. Effects of P and CP violations can result in charge separation under a strong magnetic field, a phenomenon called the chiral magnetic effect (CME). Experimental measurements of the CME-induced charge separation in heavy-ion collisions are dominated by physics backgrounds. Major theoretical and experimental efforts have been devoted to eliminating or reducing those backgrounds. We review the current status of these efforts in the search for the CME in heavy-ion collisions.
The phase transition of nuclei with increasing angular momentum (or spin) and excitation energy is one of the most fundamental topics of nuclear structure research. The odd-N nuclei with A ≈160 are widely considered belonging to the well-deformed region, and their excitation spectra are energetically favored to exhibit the rotational characteristics. In this work, however, the evidence suggesting that the nuclei changes from rotation to vibration along the yrast lines as a function of spin was found. The simple method, named as E-Gamma Over Spin (E-GOS) curves, would be used to discern the evolution from rotational to vibrational structure in nuclei for various spin ranges. Meanwhile, in order to understand the band structure properties of nuclei, theoretical calculations have been performed for the yrast bands of the odd-A rare-earth nuclei within the framework of the total routhian surface (TRS) model. The TRS plots predict that the 165Yb and 157Dy isotopes have large quadrupole shapes at low spin states. At higher rotational frequency (hω~ >0.50 MeV), a clear reduction of the quadrupole deformation is indicated by the present results, and the isotopes become rigid in the γ deformation.
In view of the successful application of the methods based on critical point symmetries (CPSs) in nuclear shape phase transitions, the new CPSs named SX(n) are established in this work for axially-symmetric odd-A nuclei through extending the original X(n) CPSs with n=3,4,5, which were used to describe the spherical to prolate shape phase transitions in even-even nuclei, in the strong-coupling scheme. By comparing the spectral structures in between the X(n) and the SX(n) CPSs, it is revealed that the dynamical structures of SX(n) are closer to the rigid rotor and less changed with the model dimension in comparison with X(n). Moreover, these features of SX(n) are preliminarily verified by checking the rotational structures of 150,151,152,153Sm and 172,173,174,175Os nuclei.
基于两势方法系统地研究了质子数51 ≤ Z ≤ 83质子放射性核素的衰变半衰期。总的质子-子核相互作用势包括：通过单折叠子核密度和DDM3Y有效相互作用得到的微观核势，通过单折叠子核电荷密度和质子-质子库仑相互作用得到的真实库仑势以及离心势。同时，预测了同一区域16个核的质子放射性半衰期，并且预测的质子放射性半衰期在4.11倍的范围内。此外，还研究了质子放射性的Geiger-Nuttall定律。结果表明，Geiger-Nuttall定律可以用来描述角动量相同的同位素的质子放射性。
In the present work, we systematically study the half-lives of proton radioactivity for 51 ≤ Z ≤ 83 nuclei within the two-potential approach. The total emitted proton-daughter nucleus interaction potential is composed of the microscopic nuclear potential obtained by single folding the density of the daughter nucleus with the DDM3Y effective interaction, the realistic Coulomb potential obtained by single folding the charge density of the daughter nucleus with the proton-proton Coulomb interaction and the centrifugal potential. We extend our study to predict proton radioactivity half-lives of 16 nuclei in the same region within a factor of 4.11. In addition, the Geiger-Nuttall law for proton radioactivity is researched. The results indicate that the Geiger-Nuttall law can be used to describe the proton radioactivity isotopes with same angular momentum.
Because of the complicacy of the interaction between the nucleon-nucleon for high density matters, up to now the equation of state (EOS) of the unsymmetrical high-density nuclear matter is still uncertain. In order to investigate the imprint on the global properties by some special part of the EOS, we designedly modify part of the EOS and explore the corresponding effect on the stellar properties, especially on the radius of the typical neutron star (1.4 M⊙) and the maximum stellar mass of the neutron star sequence for a given EOS. It is further proved by our calculation that the EOS around 2 times of the saturation nuclear density has an obvious imprint on the stellar radius of a typical neutron star. In addition, we also investigate the dependence of the mass-radius curve and its slope (dM/dR) on the EOS. It is found that the slope (dM/dR) is mainly determined by the EOS above the saturation nuclear density. In fact, the investigations above will provide some useful theoretical reference. This is expected to conversely constrain the EOS of dense matter by using the future astronomic observation data of neutron star.
The Spectrometer Ring, as the most important experiment terminal of the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF) project, is a key device to obtain high-quality radioactive ion beams (RIBs) for atomic physics, nuclear physics experiments and accelerator technology researches. Three operation modes including the isochronous mode, the normal mode and the internal target mode, have been designed for the SRing. In the isochronous mode, the SRing operates under a special ion optics and could be used for precision mass measurement of short-lived nuclei with half-life shorter than several tens of microseconds. This study aims to design the ion optics for the isochronous mode and improve the mass resolving power of the SRing with higher-order ion-optical correction scheme for isochronism while preserve a large momentum acceptance of SRing. The ion optics and the higher-order correction for the isochronous mode are calculated with the code MAD-X and GICOSY respectively. Three ion optics with γt=1.43, 1.67, 1.83 settings have been calculated. The code MCOADI which utilizes the matrixes generated by the code GICOSY is used for particles tracking to verify the correction results. For the ion-optical setting of γt=1.43 with a momentum acceptance of ±0.20%, the mass resolving power of the SRing could be improved from R=1.6×104 to R=1.2×106, after isochronous higher-order corrections.
Field emission limits the accelerating gradient increase in SRF cavities. In order to reduce field emission of SRF cavities, the plasma processing experimental setup of a 1.3 GHz single-cell SRF cavity is designed and built to carry out plasma processing discharge research at room temperature. The electromagnetic field distribution is simulated and the external quality factor is optimized to provide a suitable discharge condition using CST software. It is explored that the physical property of Ar/Ar-O2 discharge and the variation trend of electron excitation temperature with the changes of pressure, forward power and O2 content in experiment. The result of residual gas analysis indicates that Ar/O2 plasma processing can eliminate the carbide of the inner surface of cavity.
ADS加速器面临的一大技术挑战是高可用性要求，进行固态功率源可用性设计是为ADS加速器的可用性设计与分析做准备。首先对CiADS的可用性要求进行了分配，固态功率源的分配结果为0.999；然后对固态功率源进行了初步可用性设计，分析的结果无法满足要求；最后对固态功率源进行了冗余设计，使用Reliasoft软件建立了固态功率源的可靠性框图，分析结果显示：满足一定的维修条件下，当其他元件的平均故障间隔时间（MTBF）达到171 702 h，25/28冗余设计可以满足0.999的可用性要求。
One of the challenging technologies of ADS is the high availability requirement. The availability design of the solid-state amplifier is the preparation for ADS. Firstly the availability requirement of CiADS is proposed as 0.8. The distribution result of the solid-state amplifier is 0.999 according to this requirement. Then the availability result shows the preliminary design of solid-state amplifiers can not reach the availability requirement. At last the power loss is considered to build the k/N redundancy model of the main amplifier and the mean time between failure (MTBF) is calculated for various redundancy models. The reliability block diagram of the solid-state amplifier is set up by Reliasoft and the simulation results show that the 25/28 redundancy model can meet the requirement 0.999 when MTBF of other components reaches 171 702 hours with the certain maintenance.
为了使腔体在复杂电磁环境下处于谐振状态，保持超导腔加速电压的幅度相位稳定，研发了一种应用于自激锁相模式的腔体新型调谐算法。利用正交电压Q值控制调谐器调谐，从而消除了输入和输出间的相位误差，给出了理论推导过程与该算法的可靠性分析。该算法已应用于中国科学院近代物理研究所ADS项目超导加速器中，简化了传统控制模式中的信号采样数量，提高了系统控制精度与抗干扰能力，使腔体克服了在调谐过程中由于功率上冲引起的氦压波动。保证了超导腔在工作状态下，频率稳定在162.5 MHz，频率误差小于17 Hz。
For the purposes of keeping the resonant cavity steady in a complex electromagnetic environment and maintaining stable amplitude and phase, a new tuning algorithm for superconducting RF cavity operated in self-excited phase-locked mode has been developed. The quadrature voltage was employed to control the tuner under the phase-locked condition, so as to eliminate phase measurement between the input and the output. This paper demonstrates the principle of this "Minimum Q" tuning algorithm and presents an analysis of the stability of the system. The algorithm is applied to the superconducting accelerator of the Institute of Modern Physics' ADS project. The "Minimum Q" tuning algorithmnot only simplifies the number of signal sampling but also improves the control accuracy and anti-interference ability of the system, while enables the cavity to overcome the helium pressure fluctuation which caused by power overshoot. It ensures that the frequency of the superconducting cavity is stable at 162.5 MHz, and the frequency error is less than 17 Hz.
High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF) is designed by the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, which can accelerate particles from proton up to uranium. To guarantee the radiation safety of HIAF during operation, the FLUKA code and extrapolation method were adopted to calculate the shielding thickness. The calculations were based on proton, carbon and uranium particles when losing on the Booster Ring (BRing) and the high-energy experimental terminal. The results indicate that the shielding thickness required for accelerating protons was the largest. Basing on the results, a method for estimating the lateral shielding of a high-energy proton/heavy-ion accelerator was proposed. A good agreement shows between the estimated results and the FLUKA calculated results, the validity and accuracy of the method were verified.
高频系统是医用重离子加速器的动力核心。发射机作为高频系统的关键部件，其稳定可靠运行，监控系统至关重要。为实现发射机工作状态远程监控数据的可靠传输，设计了基于现场可编程门阵列（FPGA）与网络接口芯片（W5100）的数据传输系统。该系统包括三部分：首先，基于FPGA与W5100设计了数据传输系统硬件；其次采用硬件描述语言，实现了TCP服务器模式（TCP Server）下的可靠数据传输；最后利用Flash Builder平台，设计了发射机数据传输系统上位机监控界面，实现了高频发射机的远程监控。经长时间测试，该系统运行稳定可靠，数据平均传输速率达到11.32 Mbps，能够完成高频发射机的远程监控。
Radio frequency system is the power core of Heavy Ion Medical Machine. Transmitter, as a key component of the high frequency system, depends heavily on the monitoring system to ensure its stability and reliability. In order to perform a reliable transmission of remote monitoring data of transmitter working state, a data transmission system based on field programmable gate array (FPGA) and network interface chip (W5100) is proposed. The system consists of three parts. Firstly, the hardware of the data transmission system is designed based on FPGA and W5100. Secondly, the reliable data communication under TCP Server mode is achieved by using Hardware Description Language (HDL). Finally, the upper computer monitoring interface is designed and realized by using Flash Builder platform. After a long time testing, the system runs stably and reliably, and the average data transmission rate reaches 11.32 Mbps. The system is capable of remote monitoring to the high frequency transmitters.
Palladium nanowires with varied diameters were fabricated using ion-track templates coupled with electrochemical deposition. The morphology and crystallographic structure were characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD). The plasmonic responses of the as-prepared nanowires were investigated by UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy and the simulations based on the finite-difference time-domain algorithm. The results demonstrate that the surface plasmon resonances of Pd nanowire are sensitive to the wire geometry, but also influenced by the incidence angle of light. The frequency of the transverse dipolar plasmon resonance of nanowire arrays shifts within a wide range from visible to near infrared. With increasing of wires' diameter or length, the resonance peak shifts to the red. With increasing of incident angle, a new peak appears, which is possibly assigned to the excitation of the longitudinal resonance. In addition, numerical simulations disclose that propagating surface plasmon polaritons can be excited on the palladium nanowires and the wavelength of the resonance peak is in good agreement with the experimental results.
被动散射质子放疗（Passive Scattering Proton Therapy，PSPT）是质子治疗的主要技术之一，束流通过准直器限束孔（Aperture）时因边缘散射效应导致患者体内剂量分布偏离理想状态。使用蒙特卡洛软件TOPAS（TOol for PArticle Simulation）对质子束流经过发散型与传统型准直器限束孔后进入水模体中的过程建模，分析两种准直器的边缘散射效应对剂量及中子能谱分布的影响，分别测试70，110，160，200，230，250 MeV能量下的质子束流，发现传统Aperture在70 MeV的质子束下边缘散射效应最明显，在距水箱表面0.5 cm深度处横向剂量曲线平坦度、均匀度分别达到4.63%，108.05%，随着深度增加边缘散射效应逐渐减弱，在布拉格峰位置处接近消失。使用发散型准直器限束孔后，在70 MeV下平坦度、均匀度分别降至1.28%，101.31%，对于100，160，200 MeV质子束均有不同程度改善。对于能量接近250 MeV的质子束，发散型准直器限束孔设置下横向剂量曲线并无优势。边缘散射效应导致的剂量不均随水深增加而减弱，对于各个能量质子，使用发散型准直器限束孔后次级中子减少。研究结果表明，发散型准直器限束孔应用于PSPT效果显著，为进一步应用于临床提供数据支撑。
Passive Scattering Proton Therapy (PSPT) is one of the main technologies for proton radiation therapy. The dose distribution in the patient deviates from the ideal state due to the edge scattering effect when the beam passes through the aperture. In this paper, TOPAS, a Monte Carlo software, was used to simulate the passive scattering treatment head. The influence of the edge scattering effect of the two aperture sets on the dose distribution was compared. The proton beam at 70, 110, 160, 200, 230 and 250 MeV was tested respectively. We found that the scattering effect of the conventional aperture is most obvious at 70 MeV, and the flatness and hetergeneity of the lateral dose curve at the inlet of 0.5 cm of the tank reach 4.63%, 108.05%, respectively. The dose shift caused by the edge scattering effect decreases with increasing water depth and disappears at the Bragg peak. After using the divergent aperture, the flatness and uniformity at 70 MeV are reduced to 1.28% and 101.31%, respectively, and the 100, 160, and 200 MeV proton beams are improved in different extents. For a proton beam with an energy close to 250 MeV, there is no advantage in the lateral dose curve of the divergent aperture. For all energy protons, the secondary neutrons are reduced with divergent aperture. The results show that the divergent aperture is effective for PSPT and this study provides data support for further application in clinical practice.
Dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients of complex ions are very important in some application research, such as extreme ultraviolet lithography and nuclear fusion. Based on the fully relativistic configuration interaction method, theoretical calculations are carried out to research the DR processes, in which Re30+ ions in the ground state 4p64d9 to (4p64d9)-1nln'l'(n=4~6, n'=4~23). Influence of excitation and radiation channels, configuration interaction, the effect of decays to autoionizing levels possibly followed by radiative cascades (DAC) are analyzed. The contributions through 4p subshell excitations to the total rate coefficient are 28.2%~44.9% in the whole temperature region. Hence the contributions from inner-shell electron excitation are very important. The contributions from the DAC transitions increase smoothly with the increasing temperature and are about 12.9% at 50 000 eV. The contributions of DAC can not be neglected. By means of compared total DR rate coefficients to radiative recombination rate coefficients and three-body recombination rate coefficients, it shows that the maximum value of the radiation recombination rate coefficient is 22.6% of the DR rate coefficient and the maximum value of the three-body recombination rate coefficient is only 0.3% of the DR rate coefficient. The total DR rate coefficient is greater than either the radiative recombination or three-body recombination coefficients in the whole temperature range. The corresponding DR process is very important for plasma ionization distribution, population level and spectrum simulation. In addition to facilitate the application, the total DR rate coefficients for the ground state and the first excited state are fitted to an empirical formula. These results will provide the reference for the further analyses of rhenium laser plasma spectrum simulation and the complex structures ions DR process.
This work takes the traditional moderator material H2O for example, the differences between ENDF/B-VⅢ.β and ENDF/B-VⅡ.1 versions from the ENDF/B nuclear evaluated library are analyzed. In order to compare the thermal neutron scattering data between ENDF/B-VⅢ.β and ENDF/B-VⅡ.1 versions under the same temperature, the interpolation method is used to obtain the thermal neutron scattering data under arbitrary temperatures. There are some differences between ENDF/B-VⅢ.β and ENDF/B-VⅡ.1 versions, the thermal neutron scattering cross sections of H bound in H2O within ENDF/B-VⅢ.β is different with that of ENDF/B-VⅡ.1, the scattering angle cosines of the neutron and target nuclei from the two libraries are slightly smaller than zero in lower energy range within thermal range. Moreover, the second scattering energy spectrum from ENDF/B-VⅢ.β is slightly harder than that from the ENDF/B-VⅡ.1 in higher energy range within thermal range when the temperature is higher than room temperature.