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Corrected proofs  doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.37.2019CNPC34
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Nuclear structure of unstable nuclei, in particularly the nuclei near the magic number, has been one of the hot topics of nuclear physics study. Near the neutron magic number N=40, 50, rich nuclear structure phonomania appeared in the nickel region, in particularly for the neutron-rich isotopes, have stimulated intensive investigation from both theoretical and experimental aspects. In order to gain a better understanding of the nuclear structure in the nickel region, we choose to study the properties of neutron-rich Zn(Z=30) isotopes. In this paper, after a simple introduction of the laser spectroscopy experiment of Zn isotopes at CERN-ISOLDE, we reviewed the nuclear spins, magnetic moment, electric quadrupole moment and root mean square charge radius of the ground and long-lived isomeric states of 62–80Zn isotopes. Based on these properties, together with shell-model calculation from different interactions, we discussed systematically the nuclear structure phenomena, such as the shell structure evolution, magicity, deformation and shape coexistence, and the cross-shell excitation of correlated nucleons. At the end, on the basis of the current experimental data and nuclear structure information, as well as the theoretical prediction of energy level evolution of N=51 isotones in nickel region, we propose to measure the basic properties of 81,82Zn nuclei at the collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy setup at ISOLDE-CERN.
Corrected proofs  doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.37.2019CNPC37
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Nucleon, the main building block to the visible matter in the universe, is an ideal laboratory to study the strong interaction. In the experimental study of nucleon structure, Electron Ion Collider(EIC) plays important role. EIC is a super electron-microscope being able to take clear image of the inner structure of the nucleon, and hence is an effective tool to gain insights into the fundamental constituents of matter, e.g., especially the structures of the nucleon and nuclei. The Electron-ion collider in China(EicC) project is proposed based on the HIAF facility by promoting its ion beam to an energy around 15~25 GeV, which is then enforced to collide with an electron beam of 3~5 GeV. Both beams are polarized and their center-of-mass energy is 10~20 GeV. The main physics motivations include the precision measurements to the nucleon internal structure in the sea-quark region, and the promotion of our understanding of the origin of proton spin and mass, the study of exotic states, etc. In the paper, a fast simulation package based on parametrisation is developed for EicC. With the simulation package, one EicC detector conceptual design is proposed based on the virous physics simulations.
Corrected proofs  doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.37.2019CNPC07
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The study of halo phenomenon gives us a new understanding of nuclear structure, in which the continuum, especially the resonance in the continuum, plays an important role. The complex momentum representation (CMR) method can not only describe the bound state, resonant state and continuous spectrum uniformly, but also describe the narrow and wide resonance well. In this paper, the CMR method is introduced for the study of nuclear resonance. The single particle energy of bound state and resonance state of 31Ne and 19C with deformation parameter β2 is given. The physical mechanism of halo formation in 19C and 31Ne and the reason of energy level inversion near the neutron number N = 20 are analyzed. The halo phenomenon in nuclei heavier than 37Mg is predicted. The result of this prediction is helpful to find heavier halo nuclei in experiments. These studies show that the CMR method is suitable for describing not only stable nuclei, but also exotic nuclei with diffuse material distribution.
Corrected proofs  doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.37.2019CNPC02
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In the article, Zn thin films were deposited on the glass substrates at room temperature by magnetron sputtering from a zinc target. And ZnS thin films were prepared by annealing Zn thin films in sulfur vapor and Ar gas at 200 and 400 ℃. The microstructure defects, crystallizations, surface morphology and optical properties of the samples were analyzed by PAT(positron annihilation technique), XRD(X-ray diffraction), SEM(scanning electron microscopy) and UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The resultant ZnS thin films exhibited a high optical transmittance of about 80% in the visible region. With the increase of sulfidation time, the band-gap value was increased from 3.55 to 3.57 eV, and the S/Zn atomic ratio was enhanced from 0.54 to 0.89, implying an obvious improvement of ZnS film quality. This demonstrated that the excess-sulfur problem in the ZnS films was well solved compared with those samples prepared by sulfidation in the vacuum-sealed quartz-glass ampoules. Besides, the structural defects of the thin films before and after sulfidation were investigated by positron annihilation Doppler broadening measurements. It was found that the S parameter of the samples after sulfidaton was greater than that before sulfidation, implying the higher structural defect concentration for the former than the latter.
Corrected proofs  doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.37.2019CNPC68
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We apply the coupled-channel Gamow shell model to calculate the spectra of 17O and 17F, as well as 16O(p,p) elastic cross sections at low energies. It is shown that continuum coupling is necessary to account for the particle-emission width of the unbound eigenstates of 17O and 17F. The low-lying spectrum of 17O and 17F and 16O(p,p) excitations functions are in fair agreement with experimental data. Nevertheless, it is also shown that the use of a realistic nuclear Hamiltonian is needed to have an optimal reproduction of 16O(p,p) elastic cross sections in the low-energy region.
Corrected proofs  doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.37.2019CNPC53
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In this paper the time performance of a plastic scintillator detector with an area of 10 cm×10 cm and read out by multiple silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) at both ends was studied. The results tested with a 239Pu source are shown as: (1) the time resolutions became better gradually with the increase of the quantities of SiPMs connected in series; (2) when the number of 12 SiPMs was fixed, the time resolutions got worse as the number of parallel branches were increased; (3) the detector time resolutions can be effectively improved by using a fast-time plastic scintillator and adding its thickness; (4) to improve the positional uniformity of the time resolution, the scintillator with larger dimensions than beam spots should be used; (5) a resolution less than 131 ps was achieved with a 0.1 cm thickness EJ232 scintillator detector read out on each side by 12 SiPMs conncted in series. This study has importance significance for the upgrading of the start detector at RIBLL2.
Corrected proofs  doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.37.2019CNPC65
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We review our recent studies on chiral crossover and chiral phase transition temperatures in this proceedings. We will firstly present a lattice QCD based determination of the chiral crossover transition temperature at zero and nonzero baryon chemical potential $\mu_{\rm{B}}$ which is $T_{\rm{pc}}\!=\!(156.5\pm1.5)$ MeV. At nonzero temperature the curvatures of the chiral crossover transition line are $\kappa^{\rm{B}}_2$=0.012(4) and $\kappa^{\rm{B}}_4$=0.000(4) for the 2nd and 4th order of $\mu_{\rm{B}}/T$. We will then present a first determination of chiral phase transition temperature in QCD with two degenerate, massless quarks and a physical strange quark. After thermodynamic, continuum and chiral extrapolations we find the chiral phase transition temperature $T_{\rm{c}}^0\!=\!132^{+3}_{-6}$ MeV.
Corrected proofs  doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.37.2019CNPC26
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According to several common lifetime calculation methods of radioactive nuclides, the scope of applicable of the four calculation methods, which are named Method of Direct Fitting, Method of Logarithmic Time, Method of Maximum Likelihood and Method of Maximum likelihood when observation time windows is limited, are studied based on the simulation data. As the observation time window is limited or not, the applicable range of the lifetime calculation methods in different observation time windows and different counts are discussed. In simulation, fully stripped ion 94mRu44+ was selected as the target nuclide, the lifetime and error in different counts and different observation time windows are obtained, and the applicable range of the four methods is given. The experimental data of 94mRu44+ was obtained from the lifetime measurement experiment which is performed by using the Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) at the HIRFL-CSR facility in Lanzhou. The simulation results are consistent with the experimental results within one error bar, thereby it is further verified the applicable range of the calculation method and the reliability of the simulation data. The simulation results provide theoretical basis and reference for the design of the future lifetime experiments.
Corrected proofs  doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.37.2019CNPC52
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The spectrum of hadrons is important for understanding the confinement of quantum chromodynamics. Many new puzzles arose since 2003 due to the abundance of experimental discoveries with the $XYZ$ structures in the heavy quarkonium mass region being the outstanding examples. Hadronic resonances correspond to poles of the $S$-matrix, which has other types of singularities such as the triangle singularity due to the simultaneous on-shellness of three intermediate particles. Here we briefly discuss a few possible manifestations of triangle singularities in the $XYZ$ physics, paying particular attention to the formalism that can be used to analyze the data for charged $Z_c$ structures in the $\psi\pi$ distributions of the reaction $e^+e^-\to \psi\pi^+\pi^-$.
Corrected proofs  doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.37.2019CNPC09
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Direct reaction, including elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and transfer reactions, is one of the commonly used methods to study the exotic structure of light neutron-rich nuclei. Taking for example the structure studies of 6,8He, 11Li, 11,12Be, 14,15B, and 15,16C, this paper reviewed how to use these reactions to study the exotic structure of neutron-rich nuclei experimentally. The effective interactions (optical potential) between the halo nuclei 6,8He/11Be and the p/d targets are obtained by fitting the elastic scattering angular distributions. The deformation parameter of 16C is extracted from the inelastic scattering data of 16C+p/d, which indicates that the deformation of 16C can not be ignored. The p-, s- and d-wave intensities of the ground state in 8He and 11,12Be are quantitatively studied by the single-nucleon transfer reaction. The results show that in the ground state of 8He, besides four valence neutrons filling the 0p3/2 orbital, other configurations, such as (0p3/2)2(0p1/2)2, may have some probability. The ground state of 12Be is dominated by the d-wave intruder, but its neighbour 11Be is predominated by the s-wave intruder.
Corrected proofs  doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.37.2019CNPC41
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Deep learning is the state-of-the-art pattern recognition method. It is expected to help scientists to discover most relevant features from big amount of complex data. Different categories of deep learning, the best deep neural network architectures for different data structures, the interpretability of black-box models and the uncertainties of model predictions are reviewed in this article. The applications of deep learning in nuclear equation of state, nuclear structure, mass, decay and fissions are also introduced. In the end, a simple neural network is trained to predict the mass of nucleus. We found that the artificial neural network trained on experimental data has low prediction error for experimental data that are held back. Trained with experimental data, the network predictions for light neutron-rich nuclei deviate from Macro-Micro Liquid model, which indicate that there might be new physics missing in the theoretical model and more data are needed to verify this.
Corrected proofs  doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.37.2019CNPC39
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We provide a short review on some recent developments in the soft and hard probes of quark-gluon plasma(QGP) in high-energy nuclear collisions. The main focus is on the theoretical and phenomenological studies of anisotropic collective flow and jet quenching related to the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider(RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider(LHC). The origin of the collectivity in small collision systems is also briefly discussed. For soft probes, we discuss initial-state fluctuations and geometric anisotropy, the hydrodynamic evolution of the fireball, and final-state anisotropic flows, flow fluctuations, correlations and longitudinal decorrelations. Systematic comparison to experimental data may infer the evolution dynamics and various transport properties of the QGP produced in heavy-ion collisions. For hard probes, we focus on the flavor dependence of parton energy loss and jet quenching, the hadronization of heavy quarks in QGP, full jet evolution in nuclear medium and medium response. Detailed analysis of related observables can help us achieve more comprehensive understanding of jet-medium interaction and heavy flavor production in relativistic nuclear collisions. For small systems, we discuss how initial-state and final-state effects explain the observed collective flows of light and heavy flavor hadrons in proton-nucleus collisions, which is helpful in understanding the origin of the collectivity in large collision systems.
Corrected proofs  doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.37.2019CNPC44
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In contemporary nuclear research field, it is of special interest to synthesize the new isotopes far from the stability line and to explore the existing limit of nuclei. For the most proton-rich N≈126 isotones, which are located near the crossing point between the proton drip line and the N=126 closed shell, synthesizing and α-decay studies may shed new light on the structural evolution of the N=126 shell closure. Based on measurements at the gas-filled recoil separator SHANS, the most neutron-deficient new isotopes, 219,220,223,224Np, were synthesized via 36,40Ar+185,187Re fusion-evaporation reactions. The new experimental results allow us to establish the α-decay systematics for Np isotopes around N=126 for the first time, and to test the robustness of this shell closure in neptunium. The systematic analysis of single proton separation energies figures out the exact location of the proton drip line in Np isotopic chain. At the same time, the isotope 219Np was identified as the presently known heaviest nuclide beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the possibility of producing other new isotopes (218,221,222Np) in this region is discussed in terms of the measured cross sections and the theoretical predictions.
Corrected proofs  doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.37.2019CNPC29
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Relativistic heavy-ion collisions generate high-temperature quark gluon plasma with extremely strong electromagnetic and fluid vortical fields. The quark gluon plasma exhibits intriguing macroscopic quantum phenomena in the presence of strong electromagnetic and vortical fields, e.g., the chiral magnetic effect, chiral vortical effects, chiral separation effect, chiral electric separation effect, and spin polarization. These phenomena provide us a unique experimental means to study the nontrivial topological sector of the quantum chromodynamics, e.g., possible parity violation of strong interaction at high temperature, and subatomic spintronics of quark gluon plasma. They are also closely related to other subfields of physics, such as particle physics, condensed matter physics, astrophysics, and cold atomic physics, and thus form a new interdisciplinary research area. The goal of the present article is to give an introduction to these phenomena and to review the current status of their experimental search in heavy-ion collisions. In particular, we find that the magnetic fields generated in heavy-ion collisions can reach $10^{18}\sim 10^{20}$ G and the fluid vorticity can reach $10^{22}$ s–1; these are the known strongest magnetic fields and vorticity in the current universe. We quantitatively analyze the isobar collisions and find that, even if the background level is of 93%, the current isobar collisions can still test the occurrence of the chiral magnetic effect at $3\sigma$ significance level. We give the causal set of equations of spin hydrodynamics and give the collective modes in it; the spin hydrodynamics is useful to resolve the sign problem appearing in the comparison between theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of the spin polarization of hyperons.
Corrected proofs  doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.37.2019CNPC01
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Accelerator mass spectrometry(AMS) is the most sensitive analytical technique for measuring long-lived radionuclides, which is widely used in the fields of environment, geology, archaeology and physics. In recent years, the miniaturization of AMS device has been greatly developed in the world. In order to develop miniaturized AMS devices and their analysis technology, China institute of atomic energy has independently developed a single-stage AMS device with an acceleration voltage of 0.2 MV and a tandem AMS device with an terminal voltage of 0.3 MV, respectively. Based on the single-stage AMS device, the high efficiency transport technique and background eliminating method have been developed for 14C measurement, and realized the high sensitivity measurement of 14C. The measurement sensitivity reaches 14C/12C (atomic number ratio)=2×10–15. Using the 0.3 MV tandem AMS device, the gas stripping conditions, background eliminating and detection methods of 129I at low ion energy were systematically studied, and the high efficient transmission and high sensitive measurement methods of 129I were established, the sensitivity is 129I/127I=1×10–14. This is the first time to develop miniaturized AMS devices in China, which lays the foundation for the localization of AMS.
Corrected proofs  doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.37.2019CNPC19
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We have studied the relativistic Kelvin circulation theorem for ideal Magnetohydrodynamics. The relativistic Kelvin circulation theorem is a conservation equation for the called T-vorticity, We have briefly reviewed the ideal magnetohydrodynamics in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The highlight of this work is that we have obtained the general expression of relativistic Kelvin circulation theorem for ideal Magnetohydrodynamics. We have also applied the analytic solutions of ideal magnetohydrodynamics in Bjorken flow to check our results. Our main results can also be implemented to relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in relativistic heavy ion collisions.
Corrected proofs  doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.37.2019CNPC13
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Heavy quarks (charm and beauty), especially beauty, with expectedly different properties from light quarks are considered as ideal probes for the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). However, there are few measurements on beauty hadrons or on their decay leptons. With the most recent measurements on charmed hadrons and heavy flavor decay electrons (HFE) at mid-rapidity in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=200\;{\rm{GeV}}$ at RHIC, a data-driven method is developed to separate charm and beauty components from the HFE measurements. From charmed hadron measurements, electrons from charm decays via semileptonic decay simulations are obtained, with which the beauty component can be extracted from the HFE spectrum. As preliminary results, the $p^{}_{\rm T}$ spectra, $R_{\rm AA}$ and $v_2$ distributions of electrons from charm and from beauty decays ($R_{\rm AA}^{\rm c\rightarrow e}$ and $v_2^{\rm c\rightarrow e}$, $R_{\rm AA}^{\rm b\rightarrow e}$ and $v_2^{\rm b\rightarrow e}$) in minimum bias Au+Au collisions are presented, respectively. Less suppression of $R_{\rm AA}^{\rm b\rightarrow e}$ is observed compared with that of $R_{\rm AA}^{\rm c\rightarrow e}$ at moderate-to-high $p_{\rm T}$, and $v_2^{\rm b\rightarrow e}$ shows smaller than $v_2^{\rm c\rightarrow e}$ at low-to-moderate $p_{\rm T}$.
Accepted Manuscript  doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.37.2019CNPC03
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At present, study of the novel Compton telescope with high sensitivity has great scientific significance. The calorimeter, as one of the important components of the Compton telescope, is required to have excellent energy resolution and position resolution. For this purpose, a CsI(Tl) $\gamma$-ray detector of dual-ended readout based on silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) was designed as the basic detection unit of the calorimeter for the Compton telescope. Different wrapping materials (Teflon, Tyvek and ESR) and different crystal sizes (5 mm×5 mm×60 mm, 5 mm×5 mm×80 mm and 5 mm×5 mm×100 mm) were used to construct the detectors, and the detectors were tested with a 137Cs source. The influence of the wrapping materials was not significant to the energy resolution but quite pronounced to the light attenuation length and position resolution. Besides, the light attenuation length and position resolution showed strong correlation, i.e. the shorter light attenuation length corresponding to the better the position resolution; In addition, for the three detectors using different sizes of the crystals, they did not show significant differences in performance. Eventually, the CsI(Tl) crystal detector with the size of 5 mm×5 mm×80 mm and the wrapped with ESR was determined to construct the detector satisfied with the requirements of the calorimeter for the novel Compton telescope. The energy resolution can reach 5.2% and the position resolution is about 5.2 mm.
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2020, 37(2): 1-2.
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2020, 37(2): 119-135.   doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.37.2019060
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Investigation of fusion reaction mechanism is one of important topics in recent years. In comparison with radioactive ion beam, the beam intensities of weakly bound nuclei are orders of magnitude higher. The study of the reaction mechanism induced weakly bound nuclei can further explore the coupling effect of breakup, transfer and other reaction channels on the fusion process. A lot of experimental data have shown that there are many interesting phenomena in the fusion reaction induced by weakly bound nuclei at energies near the Coulomb barrier, such as "enhancement below the Coulomb barrier'' and "suppression above the Coulomb barrier'' of the complete fusion cross section. In this paper, we mainly review the researches of the suppression phenomenon and discuss the possible reasons for the suppression. The main reason for the suppression phenomenon of the complete fusion cross section is that the weakly bound nuclei break up before entering the fusion barrier, thus reducing the incident flux of the complete fusion reaction channel. At the same time, the experimental results show that the degree of suppression may be related to the mass number and structure of target nuclei. There are three kinds of methods to measure the fusion reaction induced by weakly bound nuclei, which are $\gamma$ ray measurement, charged particle measurement and charged particle -$\gamma$ ray coincidence measurement. The charged particle -$\gamma$ ray coincidence measurement has obvious advantages in reaction channel identification. This paper introduces the three measurement methods and the researches using these three methods at home and abroad, including the researches of our groups. In addition, the recent theoretical research work on fusion reactions induced by weakly bound nuclei is also introduced.
2020, 37(2): 136-150.   doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.37.2019068
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The nuclear symmetry energy, which describes the energy difference of per proton and neutron in nuclear matter, has been extensively studied within the last two decades. Around saturation density, both the value and the slope of the nuclear symmetry energy have been roughly constrained, its high-density behavior is now still in argument. Probing high-density symmetry energy at terrestrial laboratories is being carried out at facilities that offer radioactive beams worldwide. While relevant experiments are being conducted, we theoretically developed more advanced isospin-dependent transport model including new physics such as nucleon-nucleon short-range correlations and in-medium isospin-dependent baryon-baryon scattering cross section. New sensitive probes of the high-density symmetry energy are provided, such as squeezed-out neutron to proton ratio, photon and light cluster as well as the production of mesons with strangeness or hidden strangeness. The blind spots of probing the high-density symmetry energy by sensitive observable are demonstrated. Model dependences of frequently used sensitive probes of the symmetry energy have been studied thoroughly based on different transport models. A qualitative observable of neutron to proton ratio at high kinetic energy is proposed to probe the high-density symmetry energy qualitatively. The probed density regions of the symmetry energy by some observables are first studied and usually lower probed density regions comparing with maximum compression density are obtained. Nucleon-nucleon short-range correlations usually reduce values of sensitive observables of the symmetry energy. Probing the curvature of the symmetry energy by involving the slope information of the symmetry energy at saturation point in the transport model is proposed. Besides constraining the high-density symmetry energy by using heavy-ion collisions, a lot of neutron-star related observations from heaven may also be used to constrain the high-density symmetry energy.
2020, 37(2): 151-159.   doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.37.2020005
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In this paper, the calculated results of elements $Z\leqslant$118 based on the dinuclear system model and other models are compared with the experimental data. It is proved that different models are reliable in predicting the production cross sections of superheavy nuclei. The prediction results of superheavy nuclei