2009年 第26卷 第3期
运用推广的液滴模型（GLDM）确定了超重核294118和291116及其α衰变链上各核素的衰变势垒， 采用量子力学中的WKB方法计算α衰变中的势垒穿透几率， 对该链上各原子核的α衰变半衰期进行了研究。 此外， 还利用Royer公式对该链上各原子核的α衰变半衰期进行了计算。 结果表明， GLDM 考虑亲和能与Royer公式给出的α衰变半衰期与超重核区的实验值符合很好， 验证了GLDM和Royer公式在超重核区的适用性，可以用来预测超重核的半衰期。 最后， 预言了Z=118 和116 同位素链上各核素的半衰期， 结果表明， 在Z=118和116中存在α衰变长寿命同位素， 这需要实验上的检验。The αdecay potential barrier of the newly synthesized superheavy nuclei starting from 294118 and 291116 have been determined and their halflives have been studied with the Generalized Liquid Drop Model(GLDM) connected with WKB approximation and Royer’s formulae．The αdecay halflives of the nuclei belonging to the superheavy nuclei starting from 294118 and 291116 have been calculated．The calculated results are in agreement with the experimental data， which show that the α decay halflives of superheavy nuclei with the GLDM and Royer’s formulae can be applied in the studying on superheavy nuclei successfully．Finally， the halflives of Z=118 and 116 isotopes have been predicted， and the results suggest there may be some longlived superheavy nuclei for αdecay in those isotopes.
在球形相对论平均场模型下，采用PK1和NL3相互作用， 对N=127同中子核素的基态和低激发态进行了研究，获得了价核子的激发能及中子、 质子和最后一个中子的密度分布， 指出209Pb的3d5/2，4s1/2和3d3/2激发态可能存在一个中子晕结构，207Hg，208Tl，210Bi和211Po的3d5/2，4s1/2及3d3/2激发态也可能存在一个中子晕结构。
Properties of the ground state and the excited states in N=127 isotones are investigated with relativistic mean field theory with the interactions PK1 and NL3. By analyzing the rms of proton and neutron， the single particle levels of valence nucleon and the density distributions of neutron， proton and the last neutron， it can be found that there exists a neutron halo in the excited states of 3d5/2，4s1/2 and 3d3/2. It is also predicted that there exists a neutron halo in the excited states of 3d5/2，4s1/2 and 3d3/2 in 207Hg，208Tl，210Bi and 211Po.
介子的辐射衰变是低能强子物理研究的重要方向， 通过它能够揭示介子的结构和性质。从有效场论的观点来看，介子衰变主要包含光子和强子之间的相互作用。使用SU(3)对称性和VMD模型分别对矢量介子的辐射衰变进行了研究。 通过对实验数据进行拟和，给出了在两种情形下V→Pγ的衰变宽度的理论值，并得到赝标量混合角θP 为－6°。 Radiative decay of mesons is an important aspect in lowenergy hadronic physics，through which structures and properties of mesons can be revealed. In view of effective field theories， the radiative decay of mesons involves mainly interactions between photons and hadrons. In this paper，we investigate the decay of vector mesons by using SU(3) symmetry and the vector meson dominance model respectively. By fitting with experiments， we give the theoretic widths for V→Pγ in both cases and the mixing angle of pseudoscalars θP is －6°.
研究了对偶超导模型的大n涡旋。 基于变分原理得出了AbelianHiggs模型在n=90—110的近似涡旋解析解， 并计算了涡旋张力对n的依赖性。 发现， 每根涡旋的张力大致随n线性增长。 期望该解对理解AbelianHiggs模型中的大量子数涡旋的墙行为具有一定价值。
The large n vortices in the dual superconductor model was investigated. An approximate analytical solution was obtained for nfold quantized vortices with n=90—110 by variationally solving the AbelianHiggs model， and the vortex tension was calculated as a function of n. It was found that the vortex tension rises linearly as n grows. It is hoped that our solution shines light on the understanding of the wall behavior of the large n vortices in AbelianHiggs model.
针对兰州重离子加速器冷却储存环的发展目标，为了满足高能量密度（涉及重离子驱动惯性约束核聚变新能源）等物理研究的需要， 使用三维电磁场计算程序MAFIA研究了一种新型的适用于CSR的纵向束团压缩腔。 此纵向束团压缩腔采用高磁导率软磁合金材料进行加载，相比于铁氧体加载的高频腔， 可以得到高的电场梯度。以250 MeV/u的238U72+离子为例进行了模拟计算， 得出了此纵向束团压缩腔的工作频率为1.15 MHz， 峰值工作电压为80 kV， 由两个1/4波长同轴谐振腔组成， 每个谐振腔峰值工作电压为40 kV，能够满足在CSR上进行纵向束团压缩的要求。
The scheme of longitudinal bunch compression cavity for the Cooling Storage Ring(CSR) is an important issue. Plasma physics experiments require high density heavy ion beam and short pulsed bunch， which can be produced by nonadiabatic compression of bunch implemented by a fast compression with 90° rotation in the longitudinal phase space. The phase space rotation in fast compression is initiated by a fast jump of the RFvoltage amplitude. For this purpose， the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity， loaded with FINEMETFT1M is studied and simulated with MAFIA code. In this paper， the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity is simulated and the initial bunch length of 238U72+ with 250 MeV/u will be compressed from 200 ns to 50 ns. The construction and RF properties of the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity are simulated and calculated also with MAFIA code. The operation frequency of the cavity is 1.15 MHz with peak voltage of 80kV， and the cavity can be used to compress heavy ions in the CSR.
利用实验测量和Monte Carlo模拟的方法，研究了RIBLL的传输效率。分析了影响传输效率的主要因素， 发现碎片的动量分布形式对传输效率的模拟结果有重要的影响。 另外通过比较， 发现大部分碎片传输效率的模拟结果稍大于实验测量结果， 两者最大相差约几十倍， 这可以帮助估算次级束流强度， 指导实验设计。
he transmission of RIBLL has been studied by experimental measurement and Monte Carlo simulation methods. The analysis of influence factors of the simulated transmission has been accomplished, and it was found that the momentum distribution of fragments is one of the most important factors influencing the simulation results. Furthermore, through comparing the measured and simulated results, it is found that the simulated result is larger than the measured transmission for most fragments and the maximal difference between them is about several tens of times. This simulation is a good theory tools for estimating the intensity of the secondary beam and designing the experiment in the future.
he Ripple coefficient is one of the important factor for the stability of industrial high voltage electron accelerator. Accelerator can’t work well when the ripple coefficient is high. The increment of the measured ripple values becomes very large with the increase of the accelerator load current. From the simulation with finite element method of high voltage generator，we found that the leakage magnetic field was the most important reason for the results of ripple measurement. The ripple was measured after changing the frame of the high voltage generator to suppress the leakage magnetic field. It can be concluded that the actual value is acceptable to the accelerator and the measured high ripple coefficient is not the reason of malfunction of this high power electron accelerator.
自从20世纪50年代开始利用微束辐照生物活细胞以来，由于微束独特的辐照特征， 其在生物学、 材料学、 生物医学、航空航天科学、环境科学、地质学、微加工等领域得到了广泛的应用。 在前人大量研究的基础上， 对微束装置及其应用进行总结概括。 展望了微束的发展趋势并简单介绍中国科学院近代物理研究所正在兴建的中高能重离子微束辐照装置。 Collimated proton microbeam has been used to irradiate the biological living cells since 1850s. Due to its unique characteristic in irradiation， microbeam has been extensively applied to many research fields，such as biology， material science， biomedicine，aeronautics and stronautics， environmental science， geology，micromachining and so on. Based on the much research of predecessors， the microbeam facilities and their corresponding applications are summarized in this paper. At last，prospects on the development trend of microbeam are made， and the intermediate energy and high energy heavy ion microbeam irradiation facility being constructed at the Institute of Modern Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences is briefly introduced.
多氯酚污染物是一类具有强烈生物毒性，并且在环境中难以降解的持久性有机污染物， 对其生物危害和降解研究已成为环境科学界关注的热点。对高能电子束和γ射线辐照降解氯酚类持久有机污染物的降解机理和重要进展进行了概述，并报道了课题组应用γ射线辐照和臭氧相结合技术，处理经生化工艺后仍含有多氯酚的工业废水的研究情况。结果表明， 辐照O3氧化联合降解工业废水具有显著的协同效应， 可以有效提高溶解有机碳的去除率。
Chlorinated phenols have been paid great concerns recently because of their extreme toxicity and persistency in the environment. The paper reviews mainly the recent progresses on irradiation degradation of chlorinated phenols in aqueous solution by using high energy electron beam & γrays. Mechanisms dealing with the irradiation degradation of chlorophenols and the different effect on degradation efficiency have been discussed. The results show that synergetic effect of the combination of γ irradiation and O3 on degradation of chlorinated phenols is significant.
针对高电荷态离子与表面作用产生的溅射离子能谱测量，研制了一台127°径向位置灵敏柱形静电离子能谱仪。利用能量为800 keV的Ar8+离子轰击金属铍靶产生的溅射离子测试了本谱仪。 测试结果表明，该谱仪克服了传统静电谱仪通过扫描工作电压单能量点取谱的缺点， 实现分段取谱——在单个工作电压下可同时获取一段0.85Ec≤E≤1.15Ec范围的能谱， 从而提高测量效率。 A 127° electrostatic coaxial cylindrical energy spectrometer with a radial position sensitive MCP detector is designed for sputtering ions measurement. It has been tested by measuring the energy spectrum of the sputtering ions in the collision of 800 keV Ar8+ bombarding beryllium target. A segment of the energy spectrum (0.85Ec≤E≤1.15Ec) can be obtained at one working voltage (U)， which is much efficient than the traditional pointtopoint voltage scanning method.
An extended equivalent twobody method for threebody systems is introduced in this article. The method is applied to an atomic threebody system. Energies and wave functions of a heliumlike ion are calculated，which are consistent with the experimental data much better，in contrast to the results obtained by a oneparameter calculus of variations approach. Then we use a twoparameter calculus of variations approach to verify the precision of the ground state energy and wave function obtained by the extended equivalent twobody method. These results indicated that the extended equivalent two body method is applicable to an atomic threebody problem.
采用离子注入法研究了Co离子注入ZnO晶体的光致发光效应。 对离子注入后的样品在Ar气保护下进行退火处理， 退火温度为700 ℃， 退火时间为10 min， 在其光致发光谱中观察到了406和370 nm的紫光发射峰。 对比了Co， Cu离子分别注入的ZnO晶体的光致发光谱， 观测到二者的光致发光谱类似。 同时， 研究了Co离子注入剂量对样品发光性质的影响， 结果表明随注入剂量的增加绿色发光中心逐渐向低能边偏移， 分析认为绿色发光中心的偏移与离子注入后ZnO晶体的禁带宽度发生改变相关。 In this paper， ion implantation techniques were used to study the photoluminescence(PL) of the Coimplanted crystal ZnO. After Coion implanted， the samples were annealed at 700 ℃ for 10 min in Ar gas flow. It was observed violet emission peak of 406 and 370 nm in the PL spectrum. The PL spectra of the ZnO crystal samples which were implanted by Co ions and Cu ions， respectively, have been compared and observed that the PL spectrum of the Coimplanted ZnO is similar to that of the Cuimplanted ZnO. We studied the influence of implantation dose on the PL of the Coimplanted ZnO and found that the green luminescence centre shifted with increasing of implantation dose. It is concluded that the shift of the green luminescence centre is related to the change of ZnO band gap which was caused by ion implantation.
寻找新光源， 特别是企图利用PXR作为激光光源引起了人们广泛关注。 要成功获得相干（衍射）的PXR光源， 粒子的运动必须是稳定的。 但是由于晶体弯曲，系统可能变得不稳定， 从而对PXR的反射、 衍射、 聚焦和谱分布均会产生直接影响。 在经典力学框架内和偶极近似下， 引入正弦平方势， 把粒子在弯晶中的运动方程化为具有常数力矩的摆方程。 利用Jacobian椭圆函数和椭圆积分分析了系统的相平面特征。 结果表明， 系统的稳定性与弯晶“曲率”Q有关， 当条件0≤Q<1满足时， 系统是稳定的。 An exploration of a new light source by PXR as Laser gived rise to extensive attention. The particle motion must be stable in order to obtain coherent PXR source. But, an instability of system is possible due to the effect of bent crystal， thus the reflection, the diffraction, the focus and the spectral distribution of PXR will be effected.In the classical mechanics frame and dipole approximation the particle motion equation in bent crystal is reduced to the pendulum equation with a constant momentum by the sinesquared potential.The phase planar properties are analysed by means of Jacobian elliptic function and the elliptic integral. It shows that the stability of the system is related to the curvature Q of the bent crystal. When the condition 0≤Q<1 is satisfied, the system is stable。
利用X射线辐照人正常肝细胞系HL-7702细胞， 运用胞质分离阻滞微核法实验检测细胞微核率，AnnexinVFITC细胞凋亡检测试剂盒检测细胞凋亡率， 细胞微核率和凋亡率随着辐照剂量的增加而显著增加。X射线照射后细胞传代培养， 第7代时不同剂量辐照后子代细胞微核率和凋亡率同未辐照细胞相比已无明显区别。 对不同剂量辐照后传代7代的细胞再次照射2.5 Gy的相同剂量，发现它们细胞微核率和凋亡率存在明显差异，即初次受辐照剂量高的细胞， 再次以相同剂量辐照后的微核率和凋亡率也高. 这些结果表明，X射线辐照导致了HL-7702细胞基因组不稳定性这一辐射延迟效应，再次辐照使得辐射的延迟效应得以明显的表现。 Human normal liver cell line HL-7702 cells were irradiated with different doses of Xrays. Micronucleus and apoptosis rates in the irradiated cells were measured with cytokinesisblock micronucleus method and Annexin VFITC apoptosis detection kit， respectively. Experimental data showed that the micronucleus and apoptosis rates increased obviously with increasing irradiation dose. After seven population doublings， the micronucleus and apoptosis rates of the cells surviving exposure to the Xrays reduced to the same levels as nonirradiated control cells; the progenies of the cells were secondly exposed to Xrays at the same dose of 2.5 Gy. We found that the progenies of the cells surviving the first irradiations of the various doses showed markedly differential micronucleus frequencies and apoptotic rates. Although the same dose of 2.5 Gy was applied in the second irradiations， the micronucleus frequencies and apoptotic rates of the progenies of the cells initially exposed at higher doses were significantly higher than the others. These results indicate that Xrays lead to genomic instability in HL7702 cells， which is an important manifestation of radiationinduced delayed effect， and a second radiation stimulus makes the delayed effect in the progeny of the previously irradiated cells be expressed obviously.
活性氧(ROS)和一氧化氮（NO)是辐射诱导的旁效应信号通路中的两个重要信号分子。 实验研究了这两种信号分子在HeLa细胞旁效应信号通路中的关系。 通过微核实验， 发现X射线辐照过的HeLa细胞及其旁观者细胞微核形成明显增加， 而二甲亚砜（DMSO）预处理显著抑制了微核形成。 另外还发现, 接受条件培养基的旁观者细胞的增殖速率增加， 而DMSO预处理产生条件培养基的受辐照细胞则使旁观者细胞的增殖速率降低。 以上的结果从不同角度证实了HeLa细胞存在X射线诱导的旁效应， 且其可以被DMSO预处理所抑制。Western blotting和DAFFM DA荧光探针检测分别显示出辐照后细胞的诱导型一氧化氮合酶（iNOS）和NO水平均升高， 而DMSO预处理则降低其水平。 因此， 可以推测X射线诱导的HeLa旁效应当中ROS是NO的上游信号。 Accumulating evidence indicates that irradiated cells can release signals which induce a series of biological responses in nonexposed cells. This is known as irradiationinduced bystander effects. Both reactive oxygen species(ROS) and nitric oxide(NO) play important roles in bystander effects. In this study， we determined the relationship of ROS and NO in the signaling pathway of bystander effects. HeLa cells were treated with or without dimethye sulfoxide(DMSO) before Xray irradiation， and micronuclei formation as well as cell proliferation rate was detected in both irradiated and bystander cells. In addition， we also detected inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS) expression and NO level in irradiated cells using Western blotting and DAFFM DA fluorescent probe， respectively. Our results showed that micronuclei were induced in irradiated and bystander cells while DMSO treatment significantly suppressed the formation of micronuclei in both of them. We also found that when cells were irradiated their proliferation rate was suppressed while DMSO treatment eliminated this inhibition effect. In contrast， the cells received conditioned medium from irradiated cells proliferated more quickly than the cells received medium from non irradiated cells while DMSO treatment reduced the difference. Finally， we found that irradiated cells had higher level of iNOS and NO compared to nonirradiated controls， whereas DMSO treatment decreased their levels. These results suggest that ROS is the upstream signal of NO in Xray induced bystander effects in HeLa cells.
以人肝癌细胞系和正常肝细胞系为材料，报道了不同传能线密度射线辐射引发细胞染色体原初断裂及24 h内的修复情况。 计算了相对生物学效应的值。 以L02染色体总断裂数量得出的RBE值96.05 keV/μm的12C6+ 为3.6， 512 keV/μm 36Ar18+ 为2.9。 而以7721染色体总断裂数量得出的RBE值： 96.05 keV/μm的12C6+ 为3.5，512keV/μm 36Ar18+也为2.9。用产生等点染色单体断裂计算，则RBE更高。对比得出，高LET对增加等点染色单体断裂量的作用要远远大于对增加染色单体断裂量的作用。等点染色单体的断裂修复难度要远远大于染色单体断裂的修复难度， 这也是高LET高致死率的一个重要原因。 Human hepatoma SMMC7721 and normal liver L02 cells were irradiated with γrays，12C6+ and 36Ar18+ ion beams at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou(HIRFL). We reported the kinetic repair of chromosome breaks of L02 and SMMC7721 cells in 24 h of postirradiation time. The relative biological effectiveness(RBE) for inducing chromatid breaks were 3.6 for L02 and 3.5 for SMMC7721 cell lines at the linear energy transfer(LET) peak of 96.55 keV/μm 12C6+ ions， and 2.9 (both of the two cell lines) at 512 keV/μm 36Ar18+ ions.It suggested that the RBE of isochromatidtype breaks induced by 36Ar18+ was higher than those by 12C6+. We concluded that the high production of isochromatidtype breaks， induced by the densely ionizing track structure， could be regarded as a signature of high LET radiation exposure.
随着端粒酶活性与肿瘤病理学关系的明确，对端粒酶与肿瘤关系的研究成为生物学研究领域的热点问题之一。 对端粒酶活性与肿瘤的关系，以及各种射线，特别是重离子辐照肿瘤后端粒酶活性的变化等最新研究成果进行了综述。 同时指出由于研究结论的矛盾，试图通过抑制端粒酶活性以杀死肿瘤，最终实现癌症治疗的方案是否可行，端粒酶活性的检测是否能作为放射肿瘤治疗效果有效性的指标还需要更深入的探讨。
The study on the relationship between telomerase and tumor become one of hotspots in biology because of its function in tumorigenesis. We reviewed the changes of telomerase activity of cancer cells irradiated by different radiations, especially heavy ion. Meanwhile, because of contradictory results, we should be cautious to the application of telomerase inhibition to kill tumor cell and thought deeply about evaluating the killing effect of adiotherapy by telomerase activity index.
利用100 MeV/u C离子束对高产酒精酵母菌株进行了辐照诱变的研究。 采用红四氮唑作为筛选指示剂， 得到了5株产酒能力有所提高的突变酵母菌。 利用甜高粱汁的发酵结果表明， T4突变菌株的产酒精能力比原始出发菌株提高了18.6%， 且发酵液中的残糖含量也有所降低。 随后对T4菌株在甜高粱汁中的最适宜发酵条件做了初步探索， 结果表明： 最适发酵温度和pH值分别为30 ℃和4.5。 通过10 l发酵罐的验证试验表明： 在同样发酵条件下， T4菌株的发酵率和产酒精能力都比原始出发菌株提高了12%。 Five mutants with high ability of producing alcohol were selected out by using TTC as an indicator after irradiation of the alcohol yeast with 100 MeV/u carbon ions. The fermentation experiment in sweet sorghum juice showed that the alcohol production ability of mutant T4 strain increased 18.6% compared to the control strain. The residual sugar content in the juice was decreased too. After that, the optimum fermentation conditions of the T4 strain in sweet sorghum juice were investigated. The results showed that the optimum temperature and pH value for fermentation were 30 ℃ and 4.5, respectively. The verification experiment was fermented in a 10 l bioreactor and the obtained data indicated that the fermentative rate and the ability of producing alcohol in T4 strain was higher than that in the control strain under the same fermentation condition.