2006年 第23卷 第3期
简述了近些年来超子稀有衰变的理论和实验研究进展及其待解决的问题。简单地讨论了兰州CSR上进行超子稀有衰变实验的可能性。A brief review is given on recent studies of hyperon rare decay both in theory and experiment. Some problems which exist in the field are presented. A possibility of study on the rare decay of Hyperon ∑^＋ at CSR is discussed.
简要介绍了Skyrme模型及其对重子的描述，给出一个色流管解，计算该色流管的能量线密度，导出色流管解满足的方程式，该方程可用于研究色流管的性质。色流管解的存在说明Skyrme模型中夸克是禁闭的。The Skyrme Model and its descriptions for baryons are introduced briefly. We have proposed a color flux tube configuration, and calculated the energy line density of the color flux tube and derived a equation of the color flux tube configuration which can be used to study the features of the color flux tube. The existence of the color flux tube configuration in Skyrme Model shows that the quarks are confined.
在相对论平均场的框架下，对208Pb中子皮对新的同位旋依赖的高阶核子-ω-ρ介子耦合项的敏感性进行了研究。计算表明，高阶同位旋依赖的核子-ω-ρ介子耦合能够进一步软化对称能，因而能够在不影响其它基态可观测量的情况下，进一步减小208Pb的中子半径。The sensitivity of the neutron skin thickness S in ^208Pb to the new addition of the high order isospin-dependent nucleon-ω-ρ coupling term in the relativistic mean field model is studied. Calculations show that the high order isospin-dependent nucleon-ω-ρ coupling term can further soften the symmetry energy, and thus further decrease the neutron radius of ^208Pb without affecting other ground-state observables
Within the Boltzmann-Langevin equation, the isospin effects on the production cross sections of light charged particles （LCP） in the reaction of proton rich nuclei were studied. We have calculated the LCP productio n cross sections of the reaction ^12-15N ＋ ^28Si at 55 MeV/u and ^17-20Ne ＋ ^9Be at 60 MeV/u. The LCP production cross sections of ^12N increase abnormally in comparison with those of ^13-15N. The result accorded with experimental one. It also happened to ^17-20Ne. It suggests that ^17Ne is probably a proton halo nucleus.
原子核跃迁几率理论计算和实验对比是分析描述原子核内部结构的主要手段之一。目前采用重离子核反应观测到^143Pm核（Z=61，N=82）高自旋能级结构：激发态最大能级达x=8397．6keV，对应自旋J=47／2（h=1）。利用核壳模型在计算^143Pm核能级结构及对应的自旋宇称基础上，系统地对其γ级联跃迁链以及纯E2跃迁进行了计算，并与实验数据进行对比。采用OXBASH程序的单粒子跃迁公式计算了^143Pm的跃迁几率。At present, the high spin state of ^143 Pm（Z = 61, N = 82） have been investigated. The level scheme of ^143Pm has been extended up to an excitation energy Ex = 8 397.6 keV and spin J =47/2（ h = 1 ）. Based on the nuclear shell model （NSM）, we have calculated the sequences of γ-ray transition rates and the pure E2 reduced transition probabilities of ^143Pm, and compared with experimental data. The formula of single-particle transition probability in the OXBASH code was applied in this paper.
讨论了14MeV中子引起的核反应截面测量中监督反应对测量结果的影响，同时列出了常用的一些监督反应及参数，利用截面的评价值给出了一些监督反应的截面随中子能量变化的关系曲线，并对^27Al（n，p）^27Mg反应做了定性分析，说明了监督反应的选取对反应截面测量的重要性。 It was discussed in this article that the effects of different monitors in the cross section measurements of nuclear reactions induced by 14 MeV neutrons, at the same time some monitors and correlative parameters were listed. The excitation functions of monitors are taken from the evaluatied cross sections, and a qualitative analysis has been performed for ^27Al（n,p） ^27Mg reaction. It indicates that the choice of monitor is very important for cross section measurements
将84个清凉寺窑汝官瓷和钧台窑钧官瓷样品进行质子激发X射线荧光分析，得到每个样品胎和釉的7种主量化学组分。将所有样品的7种主量化学组成数据进行散布分析，以确定汝官瓷和钧官瓷原料来源是否相同。从散布分析图可以看出，汝官瓷釉和 钧官瓷釉样品的原料产地和配方明显不同，汝官瓷胎和钧官瓷胎样品的原料产地和成分接近，但有所不同。The seven main chemical components of the body and glaze samples of 84 RuGuan porcelains from Qingliangsi kiln and JunGuan porcelains from Juntai kiln are determined by the proton induced X-ray emission （ PIXE）. Then these data are analyzed by scatter analysis to confirm whether the sources of the raw materials of Ru-Guan porcelain from Qingliangsi kiln and JunGuan porcelain from Juntai kiln are the same or not. The figure of the scatter diagram shows that the sourcing area of the raw material and batch formula of RuGuan porcelain and Jun-Guan porcelain glaze are obviously different and the sources of the raw materials and components of their body samples are close but a bit different.
通过一内空的圆柱体模型，对在快中子照相时由样品引起的散射中子强度与样品形状和探测距离之间的关系进行模拟，并用^241Am—Be作中子源对散射中子的影响进行实验验证。结果表明，在快中子照相时，由样品引起的散射中子的强度与探测距离以及样品形状有关。对于同一样品，探测距离增加，散射中子的影响则降低。The relationships between intensities of scattered neutrons by specimens and their shapes and detecting distances have been simulated using a hollow cylinder model, and the results were validated by experiments of fast neutron imaging using ^241Am-Be neutron source. The results showed that the intensities of scattered neutrons are closely related to the detecting distances and sample＇ s shapes. The influences of scattered neutronns in fast neutron imaging will be reduced while detecting distances increased.
p53-Mdm2相互作用在DNA损伤的细胞响应方面起着非常重要的作用。最新实验结果表明，在受到各种辐射损伤而引起DNA损伤后，细胞中的p53蛋白浓度在单体细胞和群体细胞情况下，表现为非衰减振荡和衰减振荡两种不同的动力学行为。通过研究p53 -Mdm2负反馈回路的非线性动力学，分析了各种（特别是DNA损伤，p53和Mdm2浓度三者之间的）动力学关系，提出了一个能同时描述这两种不同动力学行为的非线性模型。 Exploring the nonlinear dynamics of the negative feedback loop composed of p53 and Mdm2 proteins, we propose a signal-response model to study the dynamical mechanism of the different oscillatory behaviors for the activities of p53 and Mdm2 proteins both in individual and population of cells. It is shown that the sustained and damped oscillatory dynamics could be described in a unified way when the dynamics of damage-derived signal is properly introduced.
肿瘤治疗是目前医学研究的重点方向，其方法包括传统的放疗、化疗、手术以及目前热门的各种基因治疗等，各有其优缺点。而p53基因治疗与放射治疗方法的结合越来越受到重视。综述了近年来p53基因转导联合放射治疗恶性肿瘤的研究结果以及可能的作用机理及进展。Cancer treatment is one of the most important fields in medical research. All strategies such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery, and gene-based therapy have their own advantages and disadvantages. Nowadays, a novel method which combined p53-gene therapy with radiotherapy plays an important role in the field of cancer research. This review summarized the current state of combined therapies of p53-genetherapy and radiotherapy, possible mechanism and recent progress.
利用Gaussian98程序HF，MP2和G2方法和除cc-pVQZ外基组对大量分子进行了几何优化和单点能计算，并将结果与实验数据进行了比较。The structure geometry and single point energy of small molecule are calculated by HF, MP2 and G2 methods and all base sets （except cc-pVQZ）available in Gaussian98 program software package. All these results are compared with the experimental data. It indicates that the molecule geometries optimized by G2 method in Gaussian98 are always in good accordance with experimental results, but the single point energy calculated by MP2 or G2 method differs some much from the experimental data. It is unsuitable to calculate the heat of formation through the single point energy of reactant calculated by methods and base sets provided by Gaussian98.
利用含时密度泛函理论和局域密度近似方法，计算了H2O分子在速度为12．5α0／fs的重离子C^＋和C^2＋作用下产生的各种电荷态的H2O分子离子的几率、平均逃逸电子数和偶极矩的变化随时间的演化。计算结果表明，在重离子势最大时，电偶极矩的变化最大，重离子的电荷态越高，得到高电荷态H2O分子的几率越大；重离子远离分子时，电偶极矩的变化趋于平缓。The time-dependent density functional theory （TDDFT） and local density approximation （LDA） are used to calculate the dipole moment changes, the ionization probabilities of the H20 molecule and the time-dependent probabilities of escaped electrons in the process of excitation of H2O molecule by C^＋ , C^2＋ with energy of 2.3 MeV/u. It is shown that the dipole moment changes of H2O are the greatest and the higher the charge staate of heavy ion, the bigger the probabilities of the high charge state of H2O molecule at maximal heavy ion potential. The dipole moment changes slightly when heavy ion leaved far from molecule.
对输入小阶跃反应性（ρ0〈β）、有热传递和温度反馈时反应堆缓发超临界过程进行了研究。提出了一个新的物理模型，由数值计算求出任意初始功率条件下反应堆反应性、功率随时间的变化规律，并进行分析讨论，给出了一些有益的新结果。The delayed supercritical process of nuclear reactor with temperature feedback and heat transfer while inserting small step reactivity（ρ0〈β）is analyzed. A new model is proposed. For an initial power, the variations of output power and reactivity with time are obtained by numerical method. The results are analyzed and discussed. Some useful new conclusions are drawn.
钚材料具有极其复杂的物理化学特性，关于钚材料从微观到宏观等各个角度的科学研究都是对当前科学和技术的挑战。关注钚材料的老化研究，综合分析了引起钚材料老化的3种机制，以及研究采用的方法、手段和取得的成果，为相关研究提供参考。 Plutonium is the most important material for the nuclear weapon and nuclear reactor, but the metal is very complex in its physical behaves and chemical properties. The microscopic and macroscopic research of this metal is a challenge to the modern science and technology. In this paper, we focus on the research of plutonium aging mechanism, and the three mechanisms induced the aging of plutonium were presented. Methods and means, especially the results for the research are also presented to give some references to the related study.
由于团簇离子在能量损失、二次离子发射和辐照损伤上的非线性效应，所以团簇离子与物质的相互作用倍受关注。对团簇作用的非线性效应研究不仅对于了解团簇离子与物质相互作用的机制具有十分重要的理论意义，而且载能团簇离子还有可能成为材料表面改性与分析、新功能材料的合成与研究的一种有效的新手段。因此，团簇离子与物质的相互作用成为当今国际上的研究热点之一。主要评述了载能团簇离子在物质中的非线性辐照损伤，介绍了典型的研究方法和实验结果。 Due to energetic cluster produces simultaneous impacts of several atoms and deposits extremely high energy density in a very small area, the cluster impingement on solids has produced non-linear radiation damages not presented in the collisions of individual atoms with those solids. The radiation damages are usually investigated by channeling Rutherford backscattering, Scanning Tunneling Microscope （STM）, Transmission Electronic c Microscope（TEM） and computer simulation. The typical methods and results on the non-linear radiation damages induced by clusters are reviewed in this paper.
核电池具有体积小、寿命长、不受外界环境影响等优点，因而在航空航天、深海、极地、心脏起搏器、微型电机等领域得到广泛地应用。核电池的发展与所用材料的发展互相促进。从同位素放射源、电能转换、密封保护的角度介绍了核电池所用材料的发展和最新研究进展，同时也介绍了核电池现有和潜在的应用领域。Nuclear battery has lots of advantages such as small volume, longevity, environal stability and so on, therefore, it was widely used in aerospace, deep-sea , polar region, heart pacemaker, micro-electromotor and other fields etc. The application of nuclear battery and the development of its materials promote each other. In this paper the development and the latest research progress of nuclear battery materials has been introduced from the view of radioisotope, electric energy conversion and encapsulation. And the current and potential applications of the nuclear battery are also summarized.