2015年 第32卷 第S1期
中国原子能科学研究院已经建成一台“在线同位素分离器”(BRISOL)，在线产生并分离出需要的放射性离子束用于天体物理、核结构和材料科学等研究。其中研制的放射性核束鉴别装置，用来测量并鉴别能量30300 keV、束流强度在104 s1011 Particle/s 放射性离子束(RIB) 的种类。介绍了该装置的原理、组成及调试结果。该装置结构紧凑，可在有限空间内完成核素的积累、转运和能谱测量。该装置已经用于“在线同位素分离器”的在线调试，通过在线获取的射线能谱确认了产生的38K+放射性同位素并给出放射性束流的强度。
The beam identi cation unit are developed in China Institute of Atomic Energy for Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facilities Isotope Separator On-Line (BRISOL), that has been constructed with arming to generate short life radioactive ion beam (RIB) [30 300 keV/104 1011 Particle/s] on-line to be used in science research about astrophysics, nuclear structures and materials after separated. The device could shift the radioactive spot from beam line to the position in front of detectors, and obtain the spectrum of radiation and the intensity of beam. The prototype of the unit has been tested and installed on the beam line. In the firrst commissioning the nuclide 38K+ has been identi ed with beam current about 105 particle/s.
研制了一套强流质子源及低能传输线(LEBT) 注入器用于ADS 质子直线加速器。质子源产生35 keV强流束经过低能传输段聚焦进入射频四极(RFQ) 入口。低能传输段不匹配是强流RFQ中引起束流丢失的主要原因。不同加速段的束流匹配是减少束流损失与抑制发射度增长的重要手段。束流损失导致RFQ电极表面受热变形进而引起高频打火，降低RFQ长期运行的稳定性。针对以上问题，研究LEBT 发射度在不同的实验条件下如何实现加速器更好的匹配。研究结果表明，LEBT出口束流在35 keV，10 mA下，束流发射度小于0.2 mmmrad，当LEBT螺线管电流为210 和270 A时，束流在RFQ入口满足匹配条件。
An intense ECR proton source and low energy beam transport (LEBT) system have been developed for the proton Linac of China Initiative Accelerator Driven Sub-Critical system (C-ADS). The proton source can deliver stable 35 keV proton beams to the entrances of the downstream Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). The optics mismatching between the LEBT sections is the main reason that leads to the beam loss in the intense RFQ. Optimum beam matching between the different accelerator sections is one of the key points to reduce the beam losses and emittance growth. For CI-ADS driver Linac system, beam loss at continuous wave operation mode leads to thermal deformation and sparks in the RFQ, and thus has big impact to the reliability of RFQ. Therefore, this paper was mainly studied how to achieve good beam matching and reduce beam losses between LEBT and RFQ. Experiments study show that beam emittance at the LEBT exit is less than 0.2 mmmrad when the 10 mA/35 keV was extracted from the LEBT. The emittance meets the matching requirement of the RFQ entrance when the currents of solenoids lens were sets to 210 and 270 A.
基于直接等离子体注入(Direct Plasma Injection Scheme，DPIS) 的方法，设计并建造了一台低能段离子加速装置；目前实验上利用该方法成功地加速了峰值流强为11.28 mA，能量为593 keV/u 的C6+ 脉冲束流。考虑到激光离子源产生的束流为脉冲束，且具有能散大，强度高等特点，给低能传输线(LEBT) 的设计带来很大的困难，而DPIS 方法则简单易行，可有效地提高注入效率；因此该装置将激光离子源与RFQ直接连接在一起，将离子源产生的等离子体直接注入到RFQ，并没有采用传统的LEBT。并采用IGUN 程序对该注入方法进行了模拟，计算确定了离子源引出的强流脉冲束的参数以及注入效率，模拟的结果与实验的测量值一致。
An accelerator with low injection energy has been designed and constructed based on direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS); a pulsed C6+ beam with peak current of 11.28 mA, energy of 593 keV/u has been successfully achieved after accelerated with DPIS method. It is because that the beam produced by laser ion source is a pulsed one with large energy spread, high intensity and the design of a low energy transport line (LEBT) is also complicated, while the DPIS method is simple to achieve and improve the injection efficiency effectively; so, the laser ion source is directly connected to the RFQ without a LEBT in this equipment and then the laser produced plasma will be injected into RFQ with DPIS. In addition, the DPIS method is simulated by IGUN code and the parameters of extracted beam and its injection efficiency are obtained from simulation, which is well agreed with the measured one in our experiment.
为了模拟钍基熔盐堆(TMSR) 材料的中子辐照损伤，基于中国科学院上海应用物理研究所(SINAP)的4 MV静电加速器，研制了一台专用的离子束辐照装置。装置主要由束流传输线和高温、高真空靶室组成。束流传输线装有用于束流磁场扫描和束流监测的设备。装置可提供H+，He+，Ar+ 等束流用于离子束辐照，束流最高能量4 MeV，最大流强2 A。辐照温度范围为液氮温度至950 ℃。辐照面积最大为30 mmx 30 mm。装在靶室的由旋转铝片构成的变能器对束流能量进行调制，可以在样品中得到均匀的辐照损伤。初步的实验结果表明，装置适用于高温合金及其他熔盐堆材料的辐照损伤研究。
This paper describes the ion beam irradiation facility built up at the 4 MV electrostatic accelerator of Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP), CAS for simulating neutron damage to thorium molten salt reactor (TMSR) material studies. The system mainly consists of a beam line containing the magnetic scanning device and the beam monitoring device, and the high temperature high vacuum chamber. H+, He+, Ar+ ions(<4 MeV, 2 A) from the accelerator are used for ion beam irradiation. The range of irradiation temperature is from the liquid nitrogen temperature to 950 ℃. The maximum irradiation field is equal to 30 mm30 mm. Beam energy degrade with rotating aluminum foils is installed in the chamber, so that the uniformity damage can be obtained within a certain range of the target materials. The preliminary ion irradiation experiments showed that this facility is suitable for exploring radiation effects on the refractory metals as well as other potential TMSR materials.
随着我国核电事业的发展，新一代核能系统对材料性能的更高要求已经成为材料科学领域新的挑战，为适应这一需求，为高性能抗辐照核材料的研究和测试提供平台，北京大学4.5 MV静电加速器组在核物理与核技术国家重点实验室的支持下，在原有束线基础上新增设质子/氦温控辐照系统并投入使用。该系统可进行能量范围在0:73:5 MeV内的质子或氦离子辐照，离子流强最高10 A，并可进行最高1 000 ℃的加热辐照，特别适合开展核能材料的初级快速筛选。此外，4.5 MV加速器与26 MV串列加速器联合建设的双束共靶辐照系统也已经整体调试完成，可为材料辐照效应的进一步研究提供良好的实验平台.
Understanding nuclear materials response in extreme environments, such as intense irradiation and high temperature in fusion reactors and advanced fission reactors, is significant in designing advanced nuclear energy systems. Recently, a nuclear material irradiation system has been installed and in service on the beam line of 4.5 MV electrostatic accelerator. The energy range of proton or helium ion accelerated will be from 0.7~3.5 MeV, and the ion current will be up to 10 A. The system will consist of a vacuum chamber combined with heating controlling, which can achieve the irradiation under 1 000 ℃. In addition, by coupling 26 MV tandem accelerator and 4.5 MV single end electrostatic accelerator, a double beam irradiation system has been assembledand tested to study the synergistic effects of displacement damage, helium or hydrogen irradiation effects on microstructural changes of materials, as the experimental simulation of irradiation damage in reactors
为了开展空间环境中低能粒子对航天电子器件作用规律的研究，根据研究项目需要，研制一台1~ 50keV 的低能质子束装置。该装置具有无需机械调节即可对质子能量、注入面积、注量率等参数进行大范围调节的特点。装置设计紧凑、所占空间小、成本低。介绍了质子束装置的基本构成以及聚焦透镜、速度选择器、扫描器等主要元件的结构特点及优化措施。调试结果表明，装置的性能达到了预期的技术指标，在有效注入面积内可达90% 以上的均匀度，并能够长期稳定运行，满足了研究的需要。
The particles in the space environment are an important factor for the abnormity of spacecraft.So, it’s necessary to study on the effect of low-energy particles to spacecraft. In view of this, a 1~50 keV low-energy proton implanter has been developed in China Institute of Atomic Energy. The implanter has the
characteristics of its injection area, flux density and energy that could be adjusted in a wide range according to the requirement, almost no need mechanical change. The uniformity of the injected proton in available area is better than 90%. And the implanter has the advantages of compact structure and low cost. In this paper, the principle of implanter and the design of its main transport elements, such as lens, Wien filter and scanner, have been described. The experimental results show that the performance of the implanter meets to the demand of study. And the implanter runs steadily and reliably.
北京放射性核束装置在线同位素分离器(Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facilities Isotope Separator On-line) 利用回旋加速器提供的100 MeV高能质子束轰击靶材料产生放射性核束。高能质子束轰击靶材料产生的最高1014 n/s 的中子及很强的 射线会对靶附件的设备造成严重的活化。为了解决靶源系统设备的维护问题，靶源系统采用模块化设计。靶源系统共分为3 个模块，每个模块具有独立的水冷、供电及电信号馈入。真空、水、电、气等可以伴随模块的插拔自动接通或者断开。各模块可以通过特制的吊钩远程抓取或者释放，借助监控系统，实现各个模块从靶源间到热室的远程转运。该系统已完成了安装和调试，并已投入使用。
Beijing Radioactive ion beam facility Isotope Separate On-Line (BRISOL) at China Institute of Atom Energy (CIAE) has been developed to produce radioactive ion beams(RIB) by bombarding selected target with high intensity proton beam from a 100 MeV cyclotron. During its normal operation, as high as 1014 n/s neutrons and ray will be generated, So that the target and the materials near the target will be activated seriously. To meet the requirements of remote handling, the target station adopts modular design. The target station consists of three modules: each module has separate water cooling, vacuum and signal connections. The connections of vacuum, water, signal and compressed gas can be connected or disconnected automatically when the module is put in or pulled out from vacuum tank remotely. The modules can be grabbed and released remotely by an overhead crane, so they can be transferred between target station room and hot cell under surveillance of 14 cameras. The installation and commissioning of this remote handling system have been completed. This system has been put into use on-site.
北京放射性核素装置在线同位素分离器(BRISOL) 是串列加速器升级工程项目中放射性核束的产生与注入部分。它是质量分辨率为1/20 000，能够产生多种放射性核素的物理实验终端。该装置的电源控制系统是在PLC(Programmable Logic controller) 框架下构建的基于以太网的分布式控制系统。详细介绍了控制系统的基本结构和工作原理、各种电源的控制方案、安全连锁设计、解决干扰的措施、图形化控制界面的软件设计和数据存储方法。该控制系统已经投入使用，工作稳定
The Beijing Radioactive Isotope Separator On-Line(BRISOL) is a part of the HI-13 tandem upgrade project, mainly for the production of radioactive nuclear beam, identi cation of radioactive nuclide and injection into the HI-13 tandem. And the mass resolution of BRISOL is 20 000. The distributed Ethernet rchitecture based on PLC was used for the power supply control system of BRISOL. This paper introduces the basic principle of the control system, the control schemes of various power supply, the measures to solve the interference and data storage, and also some consideration of design, including safety interlock, graphical control interface. Now, the control system has been put into use, and its performance is stable and reliable.
设计并制作了一种用于X射线管的电子枪。以具有优异电子发射能力的六硼化镧阴极代替传统钨阴极，采用石墨热子加热的夹持式阴极结构；电子光学系统采用静电自聚焦方式，设计了具有梯形聚焦槽的单圆筒电极聚焦结构，避免了聚焦电极的引出；完成了阴极罩、阴极筒以及陶瓷芯柱等阴极组件的设计与封接。测试结果表明，当六硼化镧阴极为4.5 mm0.8 mm的平面发射体结构时，在阴极温度1 500 ℃，阴阳极间距3.5 mm，阳极电压2 500 V条件下，热发射电流达到65 mA，且发射稳定性良好。在120 kV 阳极电压下，电子枪在X射线样管中的性能测试结果表明，样管具有良好的电压电流开关特性，验证了该电子枪用于X射线管的优越性。
An electron gun for X-ray tube is designed and produced. The clamping type lanthanum hexaboride cathode with graphite heater is used in replace of the traditional tungsten cathode owing to its excellent electron emission ability. To avoid the leads of focusing electrode, we design a single focusing electrode with a trapezoidal focusing groove and a rectangular hole. Finally, other cathode structures such as cathode cover, cathode support and insulating ceramics are designed and the assembling of electron emitting system is completed. Thermionic emission test shows that when the lanthanum hexaboride emitting area is 4.5 mm0.8 mm, the temperature of cathode is 1500 ℃, and the distance between anode and cathode is 3.5 mm, the anode current is 65 mA at
anode voltage of 2 500 V, and the emission stability is excellent. The test of the X-ray tube based on lanthanum hexaboride electron gun shows that favorable switching performance is obtained at anode voltage of 120 kV.
高功率、大电流密度、细聚焦X射线源在工业无损探伤、医学成像、安全技术等领域具有广泛的应用。本文设计了一种用于X射线管的静电自会聚电子枪，该电子枪包括三部分：LaB6 热阴极发射体、带有矩形孔和斜槽的聚焦极、阳极。采用EBS 粒子束模拟软件对该电子枪的结构进行了模拟仿真。仿真结果表明：电子枪的聚焦能力主要取决于聚焦极倾角，当聚焦极倾角为46°时，达到理想的电子束聚焦效果；随着阴栅距的增加，阳极电流以及束斑电流分布均匀性显著降低，当阴栅距为0.3 mm，可在工艺条件允许下，得到具有较大阳极电流以及理想电流分布的电子束。
High power, high current density, ne focus X-ray sources are widely used in the eld of industrial nondestructive testing, medical imaging, security technology, and so on. An electrostatic self-focusing lanthanum hexaboride electron gun applied in X-ray source is designed using electron beam simulation (EBS) software. The electron gun consists of three parts: a lanthanum hexaboride thermionic emitter, a focusing electrode with a trapezoidal focusing groove and a rectangular hole, and an anode. The simulated results show that the inclination angle of focusing electrode has strong in uence on electron focusing property and the best inclination angle is 46°. The anode current and the uniformity of the distribution are decreased with increasing the distance between the gate and cathode, and the best distance between the gate and cathode value is 0.3 mm.
丁腈橡胶是一种广泛使用的合成橡胶，目前应用于各种非轮胎制品。离子注入被认为是一种提高丁腈橡胶表面特性的有效手段，比如降低摩擦系数、提高耐抗性等。最近，为了理解辐照效应对于硫化橡胶的功能特性如摩擦系数和硬度等的影响，利用北京大学离子源测试平台将N+ 和H+ 注入丁腈橡胶表面进行研究。离子注入完成以后，对丁腈橡胶表面的摩擦系数、硬度、耐热老化性能、摩擦特性以及耐磨损性能进行了分析。
Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber (NBR) is one of the widely used synthetic rubbers currently used for a variety of non-tire rubber products. Ion implantation is foreseen to be an efficient way to improve the NBR surface characteristic such as lower coefficient, higher resistance. Ion implantation with N+ and H+ ions was carried out to treat NBR surface to understand the irradiation influence on functional properties of the vulcanizates, like friction and hardness on Peking University (PKU) ion source test bench recently. Analysis on friction coefficient, hardness, thermal aging resistance, tribology and wear resistance were done after ion implantation.
高功率脉冲磁控溅射(High-power impulse magnetron sputtering，HiPIMS) 是一种峰值功率极高，靶材原子高度离化的离化物理气相沉积技术。HiPIMS 电源高压脉冲输出到磁控靶的脉冲功率密度可达103kW/cm2；施加在溅射靶上的负电压只有在达到或超过“雪崩式”放电机制的阈值电压时才能获得百安级的
靶电流峰值；在瞬时高压脉冲的作用下，靠近靶表面的离化区域等离子体密度可以达到1018 1019 m*3，试测得Cu 等离子体的离化率可达60%s70%；脉宽、频率、波形等脉冲特征对等离子体放电有显著影响，进而影响沉积速率和薄膜性能；相比直流磁控溅射，可以获得更加平滑致密的沉积薄膜，改善膜基结合反应，
Highpower impulse magnetron sputtering(HiPIMS) is a novel ionized physical vapor deposition (IPVD) technology with high power density and ionization rate. The power density of the high power pulse in HiPIMS could be as high as 103 kW/cm2. The peak of the target current up to 100 A can only be reached when the bias voltage reaches or exceedes the “snowslide type” voltage; the plasma density near the target could be as high as 1018 s 1019 m*3 and the ionization rate of the Cu plasma can reach be 60% s 70% in our test. The duration, frequency and shape of the pulse have a great influence on the plasma as well as the quality of the coatings. Compared with DC magnetron sputtering, smoother and denser films can be produced and better film adhesion can be achieved when HiPIMS is applied. Research shows that bias, deposition rate and pressure have influence on the HiPIM deposition progress, which will affect the microscopic structure and mechanical property of the film.
Nb3Sn 金属合金是一种性能优良的超导材料。磁控溅射多层沉积是用两个溅射源分层沉积铌和锡，再经过高温退火后获得超导薄膜的方法。用这种方法所获得的超导薄膜的原子组分的调整比较方便，对于Nb3Sn 的研究较为有利。实验测量了样品的超导参数和晶格参数，其超导临界温度(Tc) 可达17 K，剩余电阻率(RRR) 为5 左右。需要进一步研究相关工艺，以便提高RRR，从而使这种方法在超导加速腔的制造中得到应用。
Nb3Sn is a very good kind of superconducting material. We rst sputtered the Nb and Sn with two magnetrons and deposited multilayer, and then obtained the superconducting thin lm by annealing. By this method, it is convenience to change the stoichiometric ratio and to investigate the property of Nb3Sn. We
measured the superconducting parameters of the thin lm. The critical temperature is about 17 K and the residual resistance radio (RRR) is about 5. The method is needed to improve and increase the RRR, in order that the multilayer deposition can be used in the superconducting cavity fabrication.
采用强流脉冲电子束对含有 α+ β两相的亚稳 钛合金进行了表面处理。处理使用的电子束加速电压为27 kV，脉冲次数分别为5，10 和25 次，脉冲持续时间为2 s。采用金相显微镜、扫描电子显微镜、电子背散射衍射和X射线衍射等技术对处理后的样品表面形貌和组织结构进行分析。结果表明，5 次脉冲处理样品表面呈现波状特征，增加脉冲处理，样品表面变得较为平坦且出现了层片状特征；处理后样品表层α 相逐渐消失，出现了应力诱发的α′′ 马氏体组织。
High current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) surface treatment of a metastable titanium alloy that initially consisted of an + double-phase microstructure has been employed with a various treating parameters. The parameters taken are as follows: accelerating voltage, 27 kV; pulse numbers, 5, 10 and 25, respectively; pulse duration, 2 s. The microstructure and surface morphology changes occurring in the modified surface were investigated with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffractometry and X-ray diffractometry techniques. We found that the sample surface showed a wavy aspect after 5 pulse treatment. After 25 pulses, the treated sample turned flatter and showed a lamellar structure. Meanwhile the initial phase in the surface layer diminished gradually while increasing the number of pulses. On the contrary, the ′′ martensite phase induced by the stress generated by the HCPEB treatment was found in melted layer of the treated samples.
通过拉曼光谱、沟道背散射、原子力显微镜、透射电子显微镜、红外光谱等一系列测试手段对ZrO2，SiC 和ODS 钢三种核材料的多束辐照行为进行表征，研究离子束的协同效应对核材料辐照损伤的影响。ZrO2双束辐照肿胀和损伤是两个单束辐照的线性叠加，SiC 双束同时辐照的拉曼光谱比双束先后辐照有更大的主峰半高宽的变化，ODS钢的三束辐照有最大的肿胀和硬化。综合分析得出双束同时辐照比先后辐照具有更明显的协同效应，三束辐照ODS 钢的损伤最严重，比三个单束损伤之和大，Si 离子与He，H的协同效应最明显。多束辐照能较好地模拟实际反应堆中的辐照环境。这些研究结果对于核材料在实际反应堆中的中子辐照行为具有一定的参考意义。
In order to research the synergistic effect of radiation damage in nuclear materials, multi-ion beam irradiation behavior of ZrO2, SiC and ODS steels was characterized by Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry/channeling, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. Irradiation swelling and damage of ZrO2 by dual ion beam were a linear superposition of two single ion beam irradiation, Raman spectra of SiC irradiated by dual ion beam simultaneously had greater peak width at half maximum than that of sequential irradiation. The ODS steels co-irradiated by three-beam (Si, He, H ions) induced the biggest swelling and hardening. Dual ion beam irradiation simultaneously induced a more significant synergistic effect than successively irradiation, multi-ion beam irradiation on ODS steel and Sic appeared a synergistic effect, the irradiation damage of ODS steels by multi-ion beam was more serious than the sum of single beam, the synergistic effects of three-beam (Si, He and H ions) were most obvious. Multi-ion beam irradiation could be used to simulate actual reactor irradiation environment. These results have some reference value for
neutron irradiation behavior of nuclear material in the actual reactors .
利用能量为3 MeV 的Ar12+ 离子辐照金属玻璃Al7.5Cu17.8Ni10.7Zr64和金属W，研究了金属玻璃的Ar 离子辐照损伤，辐照剂量分别为1x1014，1x1015 和1x1016 ions/cm2。XRD分析发现在不同剂量辐照下Al7.5Cu17.8Ni10.7Zr64均保持非晶为主要结构。不同剂量辐照后的金属玻璃样品表面没有明显的辐照损伤，而金属W在剂量为1x1016 ions/cm2 时表面出现大面积不规则的裂纹和孔洞。AFM分析显示Al7.5Cu17.8Ni10.7Zr64的表面均方根粗糙度随辐照剂量的增大而增大；辐照后金属玻璃的表面硬度略有降低，而金属W的硬度有所升高。在低于金属玻璃的玻璃化转变温度时，金属玻璃Al7:5Cu17:8Ni10:7Zr64 的耐Ar12+ 溅射能力好于金属W。
Ar12+ ions with the energy of 3 MeV were used to irradiate the metallic glass Al7:5Cu17:8Ni10:7Zr64 and metal tungsten, in order to study the irradiation damage of metallic glasses. The irradiation dos was1x1014，1x1015 and 1x1016 ions/cm2, respectively. The XRD analysis showed that Al7.5Cu17.8Ni10.7Zr64 remained amorphous structure after irradiation exposure to different doses. After irradiation, there was no obvious irradiation damage on the surface of the metallic glass, while a large area of irregular cracks and holes were found on the surface of metal tungsten when the dose is up to 1x1016 ions/cm2. The AFM result showed the surface rootmean square roughness of Al7.5Cu17.8Ni10.7Zr64 increased with the increase of irradiation doses. The surface hardness of the metallic glass decreased slightly, while the hardness of metal tungsten increased after irradiation.It is concluded that the anti-radiation performance against Ar12+ ions of metallic glassAl7.5Cu17.8Ni10.7Zr64 was better than metal tungsten when irradiated at temperatures below the glass-transition temperature of the metallic glass Al7.5Cu17.8Ni10.7Zr64
对通过磁过滤阴极真空弧(FCVA) 获得的高密度、高离化率的等离子体进行诊断。为研究C2H2 气流量对磁过滤阴极弧产生的等离子体的影响，采用原子发射光谱(OES) 法对FCVA沉积过程中产生的TiC 等离子体进行诊断。利用Saha-Boltzmann 方法对不同气流量下等离子体的参数进行计算，并对等离子体产生过程中的谱线强度随气流量变化的机制进行研究。结果表明，等离子体电离度较高，约为0.8 左右且随气流量的变化不大；电子温度和电子密度分别在1104 2104 K和1023 1024 m*3 范围内变化，且随着气流量的增加呈现出先增大后减小的变化趋势；Ti 粒子谱线相对强度随气流量的变化不大，表明Ti 粒子大部分在阴极弧斑附近被离化。
Optical diagnostics of high density and ionization plasma generated by Filter cathodic arc vacuum arc(FCVA) technique were investigated in this paper. The effects of acetylene flow rate on the plasma parameter of TiC were also been studied by optical emission spectroscopy. The plasma parameters were calculated using Saha-Boltzmann method. Results show that the plasma has high degree of ionization, and there is little effect of the acetylene flow rate on ionization degree. The electron temperature ranges from 1104 to 2104 K, the electron density ranges from 1023 to 1024 m*3, and they all increase firstly and then decrease, with the increase of the acetylene flow rate. The relative intensity of the Ti varies little as the flow rate increases, which indicate that most of Ti plasma was ionized around the cathodic arc spot.
利用强流脉冲离子束(High Intensity Pulsed Ion Beam，HIPIB) 模拟核聚变装置中的瞬态高热负荷环境，离子束成分为Cn+(70%) 和H+(30%)、加速电压为250 kV，研究金属玻璃Zr53Al23.5Cu5.9Co17.6 和金属W在不同参数的HIPIB 辐照下结构和性能的变化规律以及损伤行为。XRD显示辐照后金属玻璃均保持非晶相为主要结构，金属W中有应力产生。SEM观察在辐照次数为3 和10 次时金属玻璃和金属W表面都没有明显的辐照损伤现象；当辐照次数增加到100 和300 次后，金属玻璃表面出现了花瓣状形貌和小球，金属W表面则出现了裂纹。纳米压痕仪测量辐照后金属玻璃的表面纳米硬度随辐照次数的增加逐渐降低。Zr 基金属玻璃具有较好的耐辐照性能，对HIPIB 辐照时产生强的热应力的缓冲能力比金属W好.
High intensity pulsed ion beam(HIPIB) technology was used for simulating the transient heat load conditions of fusion reactor. The ion beam was mainly composed of Cn+(70%) and H+(30%) at an acceleration voltage of 250 kV. We investigated the changing rule of the structure and performance and damaged behavior of metallic glassZr53Al23.5Cu5.9Co17.6 and W metal under different number of pulses. XRD analysis showed that the metallic glass remained making amorphous phase as its main structure after HIPIB irradiation, while stress were produced in W metal. SEM analysis concluded that there was no apparent irradiation damage on the surface of metallic glass and W metal when the irradiation frequency was 3 and 10 times. While the irradiation
frequency increased to 100 and 300 times, “petal”-shaped and balls appeared on the surface of metallic glass, and cracks appeared on the surface of W. Nanoindentor showed that nano-hardness for the surface of metallic glass after irradiation reduced gradually with the increase of the frequency of irradiation. Zr-based metallic glass had a better resistance under HIPIB irradiation. The buffering capacity of Zr-based metallic glass in connection with
HIPIB irradiation-induced thermal stress is superior to W metal.