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2017年  第34卷  第3期

第十六届全国核物理大会(CNCNP2016)文集

插页
插页I(含组委会、前言等)
2017, 34(3): 0-00.
摘要:
插页II(会议纪要)
2017, 34(3): 1-02.
摘要:
大会邀请报告
HIAF及CiADS项目进展与展望
肖国青, 徐瑚珊, 王思成
2017, 34(3): 275-283. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.275
摘要:
强流重离子加速器(HIAF)及加速器驱动嬗变研究装置(CiADS)是"十二五"期间国家优先安排建设的16项中的重大科技基础设施。本文介绍了HIAF及CiADS项目意义、科学目标、装置构成及主要特点,对项目实施进展进行了阶段性总结,并对未来发展进行了展望。


High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF) and China initiative Accelerator Driven System (CiADS) are among 16 national research facilities built as a priority during China's Twelfth Five Year Plan. In this paper, the scientific feasibility, structures and the features of HIAF and CiADS are briefly summarized. Meanwhile, their present construction progresses are reported and their developments in the near future are outlined.
我国核天体物理前沿研究进展
柳卫平, 郭冰, 白希祥, 何建军, 张玉虎
2017, 34(3): 284-289. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.284
摘要:
核天体物理是研究微观世界的核物理与研究宏观世界的天体物理融合形成的交叉学科,其主要研究目标是:宇宙中各种化学元素核合成的过程、时间、物理环境、天体场所及丰度分布;核反应(包括带电粒子、中子、光子及中微子引起的反应、β衰变及电子俘获)如何控制恒星的演化过程和结局。近十多年来获得的大量实验和理论研究使核天体物理研究进入了一个蓬勃发展的新阶段。文章总结了以兰州重离子加速器、北京串列加速器和国家天文台为基础,结合国际合作,在核天体物理研究领域对直接测量、间接测量、衰变测量、质量测量、理论计算、网络计算、天文观测等关键科学问题进行的研究进展。也展望了核天体物理的关键科学问题,这些关键问题包括:(1)在地面实验室、尤其是地下实验室开展天体物理能区重要热核反应截面的直接测量;(2)高能区带电粒子反应截面向天体物理能区的合理外推;(3)恒星平稳核燃烧阶段和爆发性天体事件中关键核反应截面的间接测量;(4)爆发性天体事件中所涉及的大量远离稳定线核素的质量、衰变特性和共振态性质的研究;(5)建立并不断完善核天体物理数据库,发展网络模拟程序,系统研究元素核合成的天体场所、丰度分布;(6)宇宙中铁以上元素的来源之谜。


Nuclear astrophysics is an interdisciplinary research field. It composes of nuclear physics, which studies micro phenomena, and astrophysics which studies macroscopic phenomena in our world. The main research goals of nuclear astrophysics are:(1) how, when and where chemical elements are synthesized and what is their final abundance distribution in the universe; (2) how nuclear processes (reactions induced by charged particles, neutrons, photons and neutrinos, beta decays and electron capture processes) determine the evolution and the ultimate fate of stars. At present, nuclear astrophysics has been developed into a new prosperous stage with a huge number of experimental and theoretical progresses. This paper summarized the current progress of nuclear astrophysics in China, in the subfiels of direct and indirect measurement of key reactions, measurement of mass and decay, as well as the theoretical calculation and network simulation. In present paper, the prospects to solve the key scientific nuclear astrophysics problems are represented. These key problems include (1) direct measurement of important reactions at astrophysical energies in the laboratory on the earth surface and in the underground laboratory; (2)extrapolation of cross sections at higher energies for the reactions induced by charged particles; (3) indirect measurement of key reactions in the hydrostatic and explosive nuclear processes; (4) study of the mass, the properties of decay and resonant states for the nuclides far from the stability line in explosive astrophysical events; (5) establish and improve the database for nuclear astrophysics, and develop network simulation codes, and systematically study astrophysical sites and abundance distribution of nucleosynthesis; (6) origin of the elements heavier than iron in the universe.
PandaX实验的进展与展望
符长波, 陈勋, 陈云华, 崔祥仪, 方德清, Karl Giboni, Franco Giuliani, 韩柯, 季向东, 巨永林, 刘江来, 马余刚, 冒亚军, 任祥祥, 谈安迪, 王宏伟, 王萌, 王秋宏, 王思广, 吴士勇, 肖梦蛟, 谢鹏伟, 杨勇, 张宏光, 张涛, 赵力, 周宁, 周小鹏
2017, 34(3): 290-295. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.290
摘要:
PandaX是位于四川的中国锦屏地下实验室(CJPL)内的,利用氙作为工作物质,探测暗物质等其它极稀有事件的大型地下粒子探测实验计划。PandaX探测器中的氙工作在气液两相的模式。通过检测液相和气相中闪烁光强的比例,实现对目标粒子包括WIMP和Axion等疑似信号的鉴别。PandaX已顺利完成了有效区体积约为120 kg氙的一期计划,目前正在运行实施有效区体积约为500 kg氙的二期计划。在WIMP质量为45 GeV/c2附近,探测灵敏度达2.97×10-45 cm2(90%置信度),没有发现WIMP疑似信号。本工作介绍了PandaX一期和二期的进展,以及后续升级计划,其中包括升级PandaX的时间投影室至4吨,建造用于屏蔽岩石放射性本底的水屏蔽,以及136Xe双贝塔衰变的研究计划等。


PandaX is a xenon-based dark matter and other rare events searching project located at China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL), Sichuan province, China. Dual phases, liquid and gas phase of xenon are used in the detector. Particles, including Weak Interaction Massive Particles (WIMPs) or axions etc., may induce scintillating signals in both liquid (S1 signal) and gas (S2 signal) phases, and then are identified by analyzing the ratio of S1 and S2. The PandaX had completed its first stage, the 120 kg in fiducial volume, and now is running in its stage Ⅱ with fiducial volume of 500 kg. The running results show that the WIMP-matter cross section detecting sensitivity of about 2.97×10-45 cm2(90% C.L.) has been achieved at a WIMP mass of 44.7 GeV/c2, and no WIMP candidates are identified. The upgrading plan of the PandaX is discussed, which include to build a larger Time project chamber (TPC) of about 4 tons, a water tank for radiation shielding, and the plan of 136Xe double beta decay studies.
反质子间相互作用的研究
张正桥, 马余刚
2017, 34(3): 296-301. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.296
摘要:
随着对反物质研究的深入,人们需要迫切知道反质子之间的相互作用力是怎样的,是否与质子之间的作用是对称的。对这个作用力的测量,有助于我们理解反物质原子核的形成机制以及对物质-反物质对称性的理解。为此,STAR合作组利用相对论重离子加速器中金核-金核碰撞中产生的丰富的反质子,通过反质子-反质子动量关联函数的测量,并扣除了通过其他粒子衰变过来的次级反质子与其他反粒子关联的污染,精确地构建了反质子-反质子关联函数。然后,结合量子多粒子关联理论,定量提取出反质子-反质子的有效力程和散射长度这两个基本作用参数。研究表明,在实验精度内,反质子间的相互作用与正质子保持一致。反质子-反质子之间的强相互作用存在着吸引,它们可以克服由于同号(负电荷)的反质子-反质子之间的库仑排斥而结合成反物质原子核。这项研究首次实现了对反物质间相互作用力的测量,为进一步研究反原子核的形成和属性奠定了基础。同时为CPT对称性的检验提供了一种新的方式,对人类深刻认识物质世界的构成及其运动规律具有重要意义。


With undergoing researches on antimatter physics, it is crucial to understand what the interaction between antiprotons is. Is it the same as the interaction between protons? This measurement will definitely help us to understand the formation mechanism of antimatter nuclei as well as the symmetry of matter and antimatter. In this context, our STAR collaboration measured the correlation function of antiproton-antiproton pairs from 200 GeV/c Au+Au collisions. After substracting the residual correlation due to the secondary antiprotons that decayed from other particles, the primary antiproton-antiproton correlation function is extracted. By applying the quantum theory of multi-particle correlation, two key parameters that characterize the corresponding strong interaction:namely, the scattering length (f0) and effective range (d0) were obtained. Within error bars, it is found that the f0 and d0 for the antiproton-antiproton interaction are consistent with their antiparticle counterparts -the ones for the proton-proton interaction. Like the force that holds ordinary protons together within the nuclei of atoms, the force between antiprotons is attractive and strong, which overcomes the tendency of the like (negatively) charged particles to repel one another, and allows the antiprotons to bind to form antinucleus. The current measurement is for the first time to measure the interaction between antimatter, it offers a foundation to understanding the structure of more-complex antinuclei and their properties. Also our measurement offers a new way to test the CPT symmetry, which has an important impact for human beings to understand the law of motion in our world.
先进核能系统结构材料辐照性能研究
朱升云, 袁大庆
2017, 34(3): 302-309. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.302
摘要:
首先简要介绍第一代到先进的第四代核能系统的发展、与核能系统发展密切的抗辐照结构材料研发进展、第四代核能系统结构材料辐照性能研究新方法。第四代核能系统发展中,辐照引起材料性能退化是一个需要研究和解决的瓶颈问题。现有中子源都不能满足第四代核能系统结构材料高剂量中子辐照性能研究的要求。为此,发展了用于核能系统结构材料高剂量辐照性能快速检测加速器重离子辐照方法和第四代核能系统实际辐照工况模拟的重离子与氢和氦三束同时辐照新方法,文中进行了详细的介绍。最后介绍了中国原子能科学研究院核能系统结构材料辐照性能研究现状和近期发展计划。该院在HI-13串列加速器器上建立了多种不同用途的重离子辐照装置、三个独立加速器构成的重离子与氢和氦三束同时辐照实验平台,开展了一系列核能结构材料,例如国产改进型奥氏体钢、CLAM钢、1515钢、钽、钨等的辐照性能的系统测试和研究。为了更好地开展核能结构材料性能研究,从国外引进了一台超导直线加速器和一台可变能量重离子回旋加速器。结合现有2×13 MeV,2×1.7 MV串列加速器、30 MeV和100 MeV质子回旋加速器、高压倍加器,中国实验快堆、中国先进研究堆、微堆等,CIAE将建成一个比较完整和先进的核能系统结构材料辐照实验平台系统供国内外用户使用。


This paper introduces briefly the development of nuclear energy systems from the GEN I to the advanced GEN IV, the progress of manufacturing radiation resistant materials associated with the development of nuclear energy systems and the new methods of investigating radiation properties of the structural materials for the GEN IV nuclear energy systems at first. Irradiation induced deterioration of materials properties is a bottle neck problem, which must be investigated and solved for the development of the GEN IV nuclear energy systems. Unfortunately, all the currently available neutron sources cannot meet the requirements of investigating radiation properties of structural materials irradiated by high dose neutron irradiation in the GEN IV nuclear energy systems. Therefore, two new methods of the accelerator heavy ion irradiation that simulates the high-dose neutron irradiation and the triple beam irradiation that mimics the real neutron irradiation environment in the GEN IV nuclear energy systems have been developed. These two methods are introduced in this paper. The present status of the study on radiation properties of structural materials for nuclear energy systems of the new generation and the near future development plan at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) are described also. The accelerator heavy ion irradiation facilities for different applications and the simultaneous triple beam irradiation platform with three separate accelerators or implanters have been established at the HI-13 tandem accelerator of CIAE. A series of structural materials for nuclear energy systems, such as the home-made modified austenic steel, CLAM steel, 1515 steel, Tantalum, Tungsten, etc. have been tested and investigated systematically. A superconducting linear accelerator and a variable energy heavy ion cyclotron have been imported from abroad for a better performance of the study. Combined with the currently existing facilities of 2×13 MeV and 2×1.7 MV tandem accelerators, 30 and 100 MeV proton cyclotrons, China experimental fast reactor, China advance research reactor, Miniature neutron source reactor, etc. a comprehensive and advanced system of experimental irradiation platform for structural materials of nuclear energy systems will be established in the near future for both domestic and foreign users.
原子核层次的手征对称性
孟杰, 王媛媛, 李志泉
2017, 34(3): 310-317. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.310
摘要:
对称性及其破缺是基本的科学问题。手征对称性在自然界中广泛存在,大至星系旋臂、行星自转,小到矿物晶体、有机分子、基本粒子,都与手征对称性密切相关。原子核层次的手征对称性概念于1997年提出,随后成为核物理研究的热点问题。目前,实验上已经在核素图上的80,100,130和190质量核区发现了30多例可能具有手征对称性的原子核。简要介绍原子核中的手征对称性概念;手性原子核的预言、识别以及实验验证;并通过展示手性原子核结构的多样性(MχD),回顾了理论和实验研究进展;介绍最新发现的原子核中手性和空间反射对称性的联立自发破缺,对未来手性原子核研究的前景进行了展望。


Symmetry and its breaking are basic scientific problems. Chiral symmetries are common in nature, for example, the macroscopic spiral arms of galaxies and the rotation of planets; the microscopic spirals of the mineral crystalline, the organic molecules and the elementary particles. The concept of chirality in atomic nuclei was first proposed in 1997. Since then many efforts have been made to understand chiral symmetry and its spontaneous breaking in atomic nuclei. Up to now, more than 30 candidates of chiral nuclei have been reported in the 80, 100, 130, and 190 mass regions. The concept of the chirality in atomic nuclei, the prediction, the signal, and the experimental verification of the chiral nuclei are briefly introduced; the recent theoretical and experimental progress are reviewed, in particular the existence of multiple chiral doublets (MχD), i.e., more than one pair of chiral doublet bands in one single nucleus; the simultaneous spontaneous breaking of chiral and reflection symmetry in the newly observed atomic nuclei is introduced, together with a prospect on the future study on nuclear chiral symmetry.
超重原子核与新元素研究
周善贵
2017, 34(3): 318-331. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.318
摘要:
当前,原子核物理研究的一个重要前沿是探索原子核的电荷与质量极限,研究超重原子核与超重元素的性质,以及合成超重原子核。20世纪60年代,基于量子壳效应,理论预言质子数为114、中子数为184的原子核及其相邻核具有较长的寿命,甚至可能是稳定的,形成一个超重稳定岛。这个理论预言促进了重离子加速器及相关探测设备的建造,推动了重离子物理的发展。到目前,已经合成到了118号元素,填满了元素周期表的第7行。然而,合成更重的超重元素或包含更多中子的超重原子核面临着很多挑战,需要理论与实验密切结合,探索超重原子核的性质与合成机制,以登上超重稳定岛。文章概要评述超重原子核与新元素研究。首先介绍超重原子核与超重元素研究的背景及理论预言,包括超重核存在的根源、理论预言的概况等。之后简要给出实验合成超重核取得的主要进展和新元素命名情况。关于合成更重的超重元素面临的挑战,文章将针对利用重离子熔合蒸发反应合成超重核的截面低、所合成的超重核缺中子等情况展开讨论。最后评述近年来超重原子核结构性质、衰变、裂变与合成机制等方面的理论研究进展,包括超重核区的幻数和超重岛的位置,超重核的稳定性,利用重离子熔合蒸发反应合成超重核的三步过程及其复杂性,利用多核子转移合成超重核的探索,等等。


The exploration of charge and mass limits of atomic nuclei and the synthesis of long-lived or stable superheavy nuclei (SHN) are at the frontier of modern nuclear physics. In the 1960s, based on the stability originating from quantum shell effects, the possible existence of an island of stability around 298114 was predicted. This prediction advanced the construction of heavy ion accelerators and detectors and the development of heavy ion physics. So far, superheavy elements (SHE) with Z up to 118 have been synthesized via heavy ion fusion reactions in laboratories. Recently the IUPAC/IUPAP Joint Working Party (JWP) concluded that criteria for the discovery of new elements have been met for those with Z=113, 115, 117 and 118. Therefore the seventh period of the periodic table of elements is completed. To synthesize even heavier elements or more neutron-rich SHN by using heavy ion fusion reactions, one confronts many challenges. More efforts should be made to study the properties of SHN both experimentally and theoretically. In this short review on the study on SHN and SHE, we will first introduce the background and theoretical predictions of SHN, including the origin of the possible existence of SHN and the predicted island of stability of SHN, etc. Then we will present progresses made up to now concerning the synthesis of SHN and the naming of the four new elements. As for the challenges nuclear physicists confront in synthesizing even heavier SHEs, we will detail those connected with heavy ion fusion-evaporation reactions, namely, the tiny cross sections to produce SHN and the fact that only neutron-deficient SHNs can be synthesized. Finally we will discuss some theoretical progresses on the study of SHN, including the structure of SHN and proton and neutron magic numbers after 208Pb, the stability and the synthesis mechanism of SHN as well as what we should focus on in the future.
香港大学在束伽玛谱学研究与新一代伽玛探测器阵列(英文)
李晓菁
2017, 34(3): 332-337. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.332
摘要:
探索原子核的壳层演化,验证奇特核的幻数结构是香港大学核物理研究的重要方向。目前,科研团队利用在束伽玛谱学技术已经研究了30Ne的N=20幻数消失和78Ni(Z=28,N=50)附近原子核的双幻数结构,而即将开展的53,56Ca在束伽玛谱学实验会对新幻数N=34的定量研究,以及到N=40核的壳层演化提供重要的数据。下一步的研究目标是探索100Sn(N=Z=50)的奇特结构,特别是研究它的第一个2+激发态与其邻近原子核的低激发态性质。100Sn处于质子滴线以及核天体快质子俘获路径上,因此,它的幻数结构及其临近原子核单粒子性能研究将会极大增强对核力和核合成机制的认识。为了进一步提高物理实验统计,香港大学在数量上增加了30% NaI(Tl)晶体从而全面升级了DALI2伽玛探测阵列。此外,为了探索远离稳定线核区的新物理,开展更高精度在束伽玛谱学实验,香港大学与中国科学院近代物理研究所、中国原子能科学研究院计划合作研制基于溴化镧晶体的新一代伽玛探测器阵列。这套阵列主要在兰州重离子加速器(HIRFL)和将来建成的强流重离子加速器(HIAF)等大科学装置上开展实验,从而在奇特核研究方面取得大量重要的成果,促进科研人员全面认识、理解核力以及天体核合成过程。


Exploring the evolution of shell closures and examining the magicity of extremely exotic nuclei are the main research interests of HKU (University of Hong Kong) experimental nuclear physics group. The group has employed in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy technique to investigate the vanishing of N=20 magicity in 30Ne (N=20) and the strong magicity in nuclei around 78Ni (Z=28, N=50). The approved future's experiment on spectroscopy of 53,56Ca, proposed by HKU, will give quantitative information for the "magic index" of N=34 and shell evolution toward N=40. The next goal is to investigate the structure of 100Sn (N=Z=50), particularly the energy of the first 2+ state, and the low-lying states in the neighboring nuclei. 100Sn lies on the proton drip-line and on the astrophysical rp-process path. Characterizing the magicity of 100Sn and the nature of single-particle states in its neighboring nuclei is therefore essential to the fundamental understanding of nuclear forces and nucleo-synthesis. To significantly increase the data statistics for our physics goals, HKU group has prepared the upgrade of gamma-ray spectrometer DALI2 with 30% more NaI(Tl) detectors integrated into a new array configuration. On the other hand, next significant insights into the structure of nuclei would require new gamma-ray detection array capable for higher precision gamma-ray spectroscopy. HKU group in collaboration with IMP and CIAE therefore proposes to construct a new-generation gamma-ray detection array based on the novel scintillator LaBr3(Ce) to explore the new physics in nuclei far from the valley of stability. Utilizing the radioactive beams at the Chinese large-scale facilities such as the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) in IMP and the future's High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF), this novel LaBr3(Ce) array would lead to a significant boost to the frontiers of exotic-nuclei research, which will guide scientists towards the comprehensive and even beyond-traditional understanding of nuclear forces and nucleosynthesis.
原子核的结团效应研究(英文)
任中洲, 吕梦蛟, 万牛
2017, 34(3): 338-343. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.338
摘要:
介绍了近期关于原子核结团效应的研究。利用Tohsaki-Horiuchi-Schuck-Röpke(THSR)波函数研究了20Ne和9,10Be等原子核的结团结构。研究发现单个的THSR波函数即可很好地描述原子核的结团态。利用hybrid-THSRBrink波函数,发现了原子核结团的非局域化动力学性质。拓展了THSR波函数并使其能够应用于NZ的原子核之中。这一波函数正确地重现了9,10Be同位素的较低能级中的核分子轨道结构。还讨论了丰质子/中子原子核中的α-衰变过程。研究发现质子/中子皮对α-衰变寿命有显著影响。


We introduce our recent works on the clustering effects in atomic nuclear systems. The clustering structures for 20Ne and 9,10Be isotopes are studied with the Tohsaki-Horiuchi-Schuck-Röpke (THSR) wave function. It is found that a single THSR wave function can provide good description for the cluster state. The nonlocalised aspect of cluster dynamics is discovered with the hybrid-THSR-Brink wave function. Extensions are made for the THSR wave function to enable studies of NZ nuclei. The nuclear molecular orbit structures in low lying states of 9,10Be isotopes are correctly reproduced with this wave function. We also discuss the α-decay processes for proton/neutron-rich nuclei. The effect of proton/neutron skin is found to be considerable on α-decay half-life.
Hartree-Fock基矢下第一性原理的多体微扰理论计算
胡柏山, 许甫荣
2017, 34(3): 344-350. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.344
摘要:
从现实核力出发(手征有效场论N3LO),应用多体微扰理论对一些双幻核进行计算。借助相似重整化群理论对手征有效场论核力进行"软化"处理。在Hartree-Fock基矢下对有效哈密顿量进行多体微扰理论计算,对能量的修正计算到第三阶,对波函数微扰修正到第二阶。利用反对称化的Goldstone图对波函数进行展开,进而对单体密度进行修正,从单体密度出发对原子核半径进行计算。与实验数据进行对比,给出了很好的计算结果。


Starting from chiral N3LO, we have applied many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) to the structure of spherical, doubly closed-shell nuclei. The two-body N3LO interaction is softened by a similarity renormalization group transformation. The MBPT calculations are performed within the Hartree-Fock (HF) bases. Higher-order corrections in the HF basis are small relative to the leading-order perturbative result. Corrections up to the third order in energy and up to the second order in wave function are evaluated. Using the anti-symmetrized Goldstone diagram expansions of the wave function, we directly correct the one-body density for the calculation of the radius. Our results are in very good agreement with experimental data.
替代反应法测量锕系核(n,f)和(n,xn)截面
马南茹, 林承键, 贾会明, 徐新星, 杨峰, 杨磊, 孙立杰, 王东玺, 刘祖华, 张焕乔
2017, 34(3): 351-356. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.351
摘要:
对于某些中子反应截面,在直接测量上存在困难。为了获得那些对核能发展极其重要的核数据,人们提出替代反应法,即利用带电粒子代替中子进行反应,从而实现中子反应截面间接测量的方法。现有替代反应一般采用非弹激发、转移等周边反应,涉及的角动量远比中子反应的大,需要理论修正,这造成了一定的困难。有鉴于此,提出利用轻带电离子的俘获反应作为替代反应,其复合核自旋与中子反应的相当,有效避免了自旋修正的困难。根据这个思路,采用236U的(α,f)和(α,2n)反应作为替代反应,成功提取了239Pu的(n,f)和(n,2n)反应截面,与ENDFB7评价库数据在误差范围内符合较好,表明了替代反应法的优越性,可以在核数据测量中推广应用。


There are always difficulties in the direct measurement of reactions induced by neutron, in order to obtain the neutron induced nuclear reaction data which are extremely important for nuclear power development, the surrogate reaction method, which uses charged particles instead of neutron, was proposed. The existing surrogate reaction method generally chooses peripheral reaction as the surrogate reaction, such as inelastic scattering excitation or transfer reaction. As a result, the angular momentum involved is always far larger than the neutron induced reaction, which causes difficulties in the theoretical calculation. Because of this, we proposed to use light-ion capture reaction as the surrogate reaction, the compound nuclei spin is similar with that of the neutron induced reaction, so that the difficulties in spin correction can be effectively avoided. Based on this idea, the 239Pu(n, f) and (n, 2n) reaction cross sections were successfully extracted using 236U(α,f) and (α,2n) reactions as the surrogate reaction. The results coincide well with the data of ENDFB7 within the error range, which shows that the surrogate reaction method has its own superiority, and it can be applied in the measurement of nuclear data.
“胡济民教育科学奖”获奖报告
实验探索原子核中手征与空间反射对称性的联立自发破缺
王守宇
2017, 34(3): 357-360. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.357
摘要:
原子核的手征对称性和空间反射对称性研究是近来原子核结构研究的前沿热点问题,吸引了大量的实验和理论研究。通过在束伽玛谱学的实验方法,在原子核78Br中发现了两对宇称相反的手征双重带,以及它们之间表征八极关联的电偶极跃迁。这是首次在原子核中发现了八极关联的多重手征带,给出了原子核存在手征对称性和空间反射对称性联立自发破缺的实验证据。


Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a fundamental concept in nature. Chiral Symmetry Breaking and reflection-asymmetry in nuclei has been a subject of intensive experimental and theoretical investigation. Two pairs of positive-and negative-parity doublet bands together with eight strong electric dipole transitions linking their yrast positive-and negative-parity bands have been identified in 78Br by means of in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy techniques. These four rotational bands are suggested as multiple chiral doublet bands with octupole correlations. This observation indicates that nuclear chirality can be robust against the octupole correlations. It is of highly scientific interest to search for the chirality-parity quartet bands in nucleus with both stable triaxial and octupole deformations.
近垒重离子熔合反应中的中子转移效应(英文)
贾会明, 林承键, 杨磊, 徐新星, 杨峰, 马南茹, 孙立杰, 王东玺, 刘祖华, 张焕乔
2017, 34(3): 361-369. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.361
摘要:
近势垒及其以下能区重离子熔合反应中的中子转移耦合道效应是一个复杂且有争议的问题。简要介绍了近年来在中国原子能科学研究院的HI-13串列加速器上,基于静电偏转板装置完成的32S+90,94,96Zr,18O+74Ge和18O+58Ni等几个典型体系的熔合反应研究情况,并结合耦合道理论对实验数据进行了分析。选取反应体系时同时关注了正Q值的中子拾取和削裂道。另外,基于完全耦合道理论计算,提出了一种能够定量提取熔合反应中中子转移效应的自洽方法。这些研究进一步证实了垒下重离子熔合反应中的中子转移效应,同时指出了其复杂性。需要进一步的实验和理论研究来澄清相关核反应机制。


The effect of neutron transfers on near-and sub-Coulomb-barrier fusion of heavy-ions is still a complicated and controversial problem. This paper reviews the recent experimental results of the fusion excitation functions of several typical systems, which have been measured by using an electrostatic deflector setup at the HI-13 tandem accelerator of CIAE. Both the neutron pickup and stripping effects were studied. Moreover, a self-consistent method to reliably isolate the transfer effect quantitatively based on the coupledchannels calculation is proposed. These studies give a further support for the neutron transfer effect on sub-barrier fusion of heavy-ions and its complexity. Further experimental and theoretical studies are needed for clarifying the relevant reaction mechanisms.
相对论重离子碰撞的输运模型研究
马国亮
2017, 34(3): 370-373. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.370
摘要:
美国的布鲁克海文国家实验室相对论重离子对撞机(RHIC)和欧洲核子中心的大型强子对撞机(LHC)的大量实验结果表明,在相对论重离子碰撞中已经产生了一种近似完美流体的强耦合部分子物质。基于一个多相粒子输运模型(AMPT)理论工具,对RHIC和LHC实验上的一些重要结果的开展了三个方面的理论研究工作(集体流、喷注淬火、手征磁效应),研究结果揭示了初始的夸克胶子等离子体(QGP)能量密度涨落经过部分子输运演化产生末态粒子的各阶次的集体流、喷注和部分子物质的相互作用导致喷注的能量损失、末态相互作用严重影响手征磁效应的大小等物理过程作用机制。


The experimental results from the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) show that a nearly perfect fluid (i.e. strong-coupling Quark Gluon Plasma) has been created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. I introduce our theoretical results based on a multi-phase transport (AMPT) model. Several important topics such as collective flow, jet quenching, chiral magnetic effect, are addressed. The simulation results indicate that the initial fluctuations of energy density of the QGP lead to all orders of harmonic flows of final particles via parton cascade, the strong interactions between jet and the QGP make jet lose much energy, and the final state interactions play an important role to affect the initial chiral magnetic effect in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.
奇特核结构与激发的微观研究
裴俊琛, 王楷, 左致玮
2017, 34(3): 374-379. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.374
摘要:
原子核是一个从少体到多体过渡的量子体系,展现了很多有趣的集体现象。随着国际上若干大型放射性核束流实验装置的发展,极不稳定奇特核的结构与激发的研究成为当前核物理的前沿热点问题。本工作以形变弱束缚核40Mg为例,基于格点空间连续谱能量密度泛函和自洽的FAM-QRPA对奇特核的基态与激发态跃迁进行了研究。发现弥散的表面密度分布与连续谱对低能共振有很大影响。通过对同位旋矢量偶极激发的研究,说明低能矮共振与巨共振的微观机制有很大差异。此外还进行了大规模拟合,发展针对丰中子核,超重核的新的高精度有效相互作用,以期为相关学科如核天体物理、核裂变能等提供更为可靠的核理论模型。


Nuclei are quantum systems in the evolution from few-body to many-body systems, and can exhibit many amazing collective phenomena. With the development of several advanced radioactive-beam facilities, the study of structures and excitations of extreme unstable exotic nuclei has become a hot issue. In this work, we solve the self-consistent FAM-QRPA in large deformed coordinate-spaces to treat continuum effects. We study properties of structures and collective excitations in deformed drip-line nuclei. We found that in weakly bound nuclei 40Mg, the diffuse surface density and pairing density play an important role in low-lying resonance. Through analysis of deformation-induced K-splitting in isovector dipole modes, we see that pygmy resonances have very different mechanism compared to giant resonances. In addition, large-scale fittings are performed to develop highprecision effective interactions, which will provide more reliable theoretical model for related subjects, such as nuclear astrophysics and nuclear fission energy.
原子核质量的测量和评估
王猛
2017, 34(3): 380-386. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.380
摘要:
质量是原子核的基本性质之一,在核物理和核天体物理中都有重要的应用。原子核质量测量是目前核物理研究的一个前沿热点课题,国际上各个核物理实验室积极发展新设备和新技术,在短寿命放射性核素测量和超高精度质量测量方面取得了重要进展,本文对此进行了总结评述。在兰州重离子加速器冷却储存环(HIRFL-CSR)上利用等时性质量谱仪测量了一些原子核的质量,本文对其在测量精度、核态最短寿命等前沿进展做了简要介绍,并介绍了正在发展的双飞行时间质量谱仪。原子质量评估收集所有与原子核质量相关的实验数据,经过评估后推荐出质量值及相应误差。原子质量评估AME2016于2017年3月发表,为科技工作者提供基准数据。


Mass is a fundamental property of the atomic nucleus. Nuclear mass data play an important role in nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics. Thanks to the developments of novel mass spectrometers and radioactive nuclear beam facilities, the experimental knowledge of nuclear masses has been continuously expanding along two main directions, including:measurements aimed at high-precision mass values and at the most exotic nuclei far from the stability. The latest progress are reviewed in the paper. In the past few years, mass measurements of short-lived nuclides were performed using isochronous mass spectrometry based on the Cooler Storage Ring at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou(HIRFL-CSR). The progresses on the frontiers of short half-life and high precision are introduced. The Atomic Mass Evaluation (AME) is the most reliable source for the comprehensive information related to the atomic (nuclear) masses. The latest version of the AME, i.e., AME2016, was published in March, 2017, serving the research community with the benchmark data.
原子核对称能对中子星壳层结构的影响
鲍世绍, 胡金牛, 张肇文, 申虹
2017, 34(3): 387-391. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.32.03.387
摘要:
中子星内壳层中存在原子核、中子、电子等非均匀分布的物质。在Wigner-Seitz近似下,共存相方法和自洽Thomas-Fermi近似方法是描述这种非均匀物质的有效方法。中子在非均匀物质所占的比例远远大于其他组分,因此原子核的对称能对非均匀物质的性质会产生十分重要的影响,而原子核对称能的密度依赖关系在核物质饱和密度附近有较大的不确定性。采用相对论平均场理论描述核子间相互作用,研究原子核对称能对中子星内壳层的密度范围、pasta相结构、壳核相变密度等性质的影响,探寻其中可能存在的关联。计算结果表明,原子核对称能及其密度依赖性在决定中子星内壳层非均匀物质的性质中起着重要作用,这与之前相关研究中得到的结论基本相符。


Within Wigner-Seitz approximation, both the coexisting phases method and the self-consistent Thomas-Fermi approximation can be used to describe the nonuniform matter consisting of nuclei, neutrons, and electrons, which may coexist in the inner crust of neutron star. Since the neutron fraction is very large, nuclear symmetry energy may have an important impact on the properties of nonuniform matter. However, the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy around saturation density is still rather uncertain. This paper focuses on the influence of nuclear symmetry energy on the density range of inner crust, pasta phase structure, and crust-core transition density of neutron star, where the relativistic mean field theory is adopted to describe the nucleon-nucleon interaction. It is turned out that the nuclear symmetry energy and its density dependence play an import role in determining the properties of nonuniform matter in the inner crust of neutron star, which is consistent with the former related studies.
基于手征微扰理论构建相对论重子-重子相互作用(英文)
任修磊, 李凯文, 耿立升
2017, 34(3): 392-402. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.392
摘要:
介绍了两个近期基于协变手征微扰理论构建领头阶核子-核子和超子-核子相互作用的工作。理论中未知的低能常数通过拟合核子-核子和超子-核子散射实验数据确定。分析发现,在对散射数据的描述上,领头阶相对论手征力可以媲美次领头阶非相对论手征核力。研究表明,构建相对论手征重子-重子相互作用技术上是可行的。得到的相互作用不仅可以为相对论核结构及反应研究提供重要的理论输入,而且可以进一步加深对低能强相互作用的认识。


In this paper, we report on two recent studies of relativistic nucleon-nucleon and hyperonnucleon interactions in covariant chiral perturbation theory, where they are constructed up to leading order. The relevant unknown low energy constants are fixed by fitting to the nucleon-nucleon and hyperon-nucleon scattering data. It is shown that these interactions can describe the scattering data with a quality similar to their next-to-leading order non-relativistic counterparts. These studies show that it is technically feasible to construct relativist baryon-baryon interactions, and in addition, after further refinements, these interactions may provide important inputs to ab initio relativistic nuclear structure and reaction studies and help improve our understanding of low energy strong interactions.
分会报告-放射性核束和核天体物理
兰州320kV高压平台低能核天体物理实验研究进展(英文)
何建军, 许世伟, 马少波, 胡钧, 张立勇, 侯素青, 于祥庆, 贾宝路
2017, 34(3): 403-408. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.403
摘要:
在低温核天体物理环境下,如静态核稳定燃烧阶段的核反应都发生较低的能区,其伽莫夫窗口内的核反应截面非常小,这就需要加速器提供较强束流才能完成核反应截面的直接测量。最近在中国科学院近代物理的320 kV高压平台上建立了低能核天体物理实验室以及相应的研究平台。驱动该平台的是一个14.5 GHz的永磁铁型ECR离子源,它能够提供非常强的束流离子。对于质子和氦离子,离子源出口的最大流强可以达到100 eμA,在实验终端上可以获得大约30 eμA的流强。基于此强流加速器装置,我们建立了核天体物理实验测量装置,包括靶室以及带电粒子和伽玛射线探测器等设备。利用已知的核反应对探测器性能和实验方法进行了一系列测试。同时,展示了近年来取得的一些主要实验结果。最后,对该平台上开展工作的前景进行了展望,并指出基于该地面装置的低能核反应研究所积累的技术及经验对于我国锦屏深地核天体物理JUNA项目的重要意义。


For the hydrostatic stable burning in stars, the Gamow window is well below the Coulomb barriers for the charged-particle-induced nuclear reaction involved. Such nuclear reaction occurs through the quantum-mechanics tunneling effect, and its cross section drops rapidly approaching the Gamow window. An accelerator which can provide intense beam current is thus required to directly measure the reactions at low energies. An experimental setup for low-energy nuclear astrophysics studies has been recently established at a 320 kV high-voltage platform of the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Lanzhou, China. The driver machine of this platform is a very strong ECR ion source employing all-permanent magnets, which can typically supply up to about 100 eμA proton, alpha and many other heavy ions, and ultimately about 30 eμA currents can be achieved at the experimental terminal. The experimental setup includes a target chamber, and the charged-particle and γ-ray HPGe detectors. This work describes the setup established, characteristics of detectors, methodologies, and test results of several reactions with known cross sections. Furthermore, some important results published are shown briefly. We believe that the experimental technologies developed and experiences accumulated at this above-ground platform will be extremely helpful for the Jinping Underground Nuclear Astrophysics laboratory (JUNA) project in China.
HIAF上基于多核子转移反应的综合谱仪的机遇与挑战
黄文学, 田玉林, 王永生, 王均英, 甘再国, 刘忠, 杨杰, 马新文, 周小红
2017, 34(3): 409-413. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.409
摘要:
丰中子核的结构及奇特衰变性质是核物理基础研究的一个重要课题。在即将开工的大科学工程强流重离子加速器装置(HIAF)上,我们将设计并建造一条专门针对多核子转移反应的综合谱仪。在此谱仪上,研究将主要集中于丰中子新核素的合成、鉴别及其核结构和衰变性质。介绍了此谱仪的动机、概念设计和工作原理,简要讨论了建造此谱仪的机遇和面对的困难。不同于熔合蒸发及弹核碎裂反应,多核子转移反应产物的出射在实验室系并不是0°附近的前冲方向,而是覆盖了25°~80°宽范围的圆锥角,这给收集和分离感兴趣的多核子转移反应产物带来了很大的困难。气体单元必须满足高束流强度、高传输效率、快传输速度的要求,其设计及建造具有挑战性。气体单元是该谱仪成败的最关键因素。


The study on the nuclear structure and exotic decay property of neutron-rich nuclides is an important subject in nuclear physics research. In the ongoing big project HIAF (High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility), a general purpose spectrometer specific to the multinucleon transfer reactions is being designed and will be constructed. In this spectrometer, the researches will be concentrated on synthesis and identification of new neutron-rich nuclides, and on the study of their nuclear structure and decay properties. In this paper, the motivation, conceptual design and working principle of this spectrometer have been introduced, and the opportunities and challenges in the construction have been discussed briefly. Unlike the fusion evaporation and projectile fragmentation reaction products which are emitted in forward directions near 0° in laboratory frame, the outgoing angles of the products from multinucleon transfer reactions cover a wide range of 25° ~80°, thus it is very difficult to collect and separate those products of interest. The requirements of high beam rate, high transmission efficiency and high transport speed make the gas cell be very challenging in design and construction. The gas cell is the key component for the success of this spectrometer.
全剥离离子94mRu44+的衰变研究
曾奇, 王猛, 张玉虎, 涂小林, 徐星, 陈瑞九, 陈相成, 付超义, 黄文嘉, 刘君豪, 李宏福, 司敏, 帅鹏, 孙铭泽, 邢元明, 颜鑫亮, 杨建成, 原有进, 张鹏, 章卫, 周小红, 徐瑚珊, 肖国青
2017, 34(3): 414-419. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.414
摘要:
在兰州重离子加速器冷却储存环(HIRFL-CSR)上,用等时性质量谱仪首次研究了百微秒量级全剥离离子94mRu44+的衰变。94mRu44+由初级束流112Sn轰击Be靶产生,经过放射性束流线RIBLL2的筛选后注入到等时性设置的实验环CSRe中,并利用安装在实验环中的飞行时间探测器测量离子在CSRe中的循环周期。94mRu44+退激引起的质量改变会带来其循环周期的变化,由此直接观测到了94mRu44+退激到基态的过程。确定了本次实验中衰变事例探测的灵敏区间,并讨论了衰变发生时刻的测量精度。同时,测量了短寿命核素94mRu44+的质量,其半衰期约为100 μs,这是目前储存环质量谱仪测量的最短寿命核素的质量。


The decay of the fully stripped ion 94mRu44+ in the order of one hundred microseconds has been studied for the first time by using the Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) at the HIRFL-CSR facility in Lanzhou. 94mRu44+ was produced via projectile fragmentation of a 112Sn primary beam bombarding on a 9Be production target. After the in-flight separation with RIBLL2, the ions were injected into the experimental ring (CSRe) and then stored there. The revolution times of the stored ions were measured by a Time-of-Flight (TOF) detector. Due to the mass change of a 94mRu44+ ion caused by its de-excitation to the ground state, hence the revolution time change, the decay process of 94mRu44+ could be directly observed in the CSRe. The sensitive window for detection of the decay events and the measurement precision of the decay time have been determined in this work. At the same time, we measured the mass of short-lived 94mRu44+ with the half-life about one hundred microseconds, which is the shortest among nuclides that have been studied by using storage-ring mass-spectrometry.
95Zr(n,γ)96Zr的间接测量
颜胜权, 李志宏, 王友宝, K. Nishio, H. Maki, 苏俊, 李云居, I. Nishinaka, K. Hirose, 韩银录, 郭冰, 曾晟, 连钢, 陈永寿, 柳卫平
2017, 34(3): 420-424. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.420
摘要:
95Zr(n,γ)96Zr是稳定燃烧的恒星中合成96Zr的唯一途径,对研究恒星演化和重元素合成具有重要的意义。由于95Zr半衰期为64 d,直接测量95Zr(n,γ)96Zr截面极为困难,因此,本工作采用替代比率法间接测量95Zr(n,γ)96Zr截面。本工作测量了94Zr(18O,16Oγ)96Zr和90Zr(18O,16Oγ)92Zr反应,得到了复合核96Zr*90Zr*衰变到γ道的几率比,并利用截面已知的91Zr(n,γ)92Zr截面乘以实验所测比率,得到了En=0~8 MeV能区的95Zr(n,γ)96Zr中子俘获截面。


95Zr(n, γ)96Zr cross section is important for the study of stellar evolution and heavy elements nucleosynthesis because the reaction is the only way to produce the 96Zr in Asymptotic giant branch stars. The direct measurement of 95Zr(n, γ)96Zr is very difficult due to the short half-life of 95Zr, 64 days. The surrogate ratio method was carried out to measure 95Zr(n, γ)96Zr cross sections. We measured the 94Zr(18O, 16Oγ)96Zr and 90Zr(18O, 16Oγ)92Zr reactions and obtained the γ-decay probability ratio of compound nuclei 96Zr* and 92Zr*. The 95Zr(n, γ)96Zr cross section is determined by the obtained ratio multiplying the known 91Zr(n, γ)92Zr cross section at En=0~8 MeV.
r-过程路径核β--衰变半衰期的估算
周勇, 李志宏, 陈永寿, 王友宝, 苏俊, 郭冰, 柳卫平
2017, 34(3): 425-430. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.425
摘要:
分析了20 < A < 190范围内丰中子核β衰变的实验数据,根据半衰期随质子数、中子数以及衰变能变化所呈现的壳效应和对效应等特点,提出了一种有效估算丰中子核β衰变寿命的公式。新的计算公式形式简单包含了较少的参数、计算量小。用该公式能较为准确地再现丰中子核的β衰变半衰期。用RIKEN最新测量丰中子核半衰期检验了该公式的外推能力,本工作可以为r-过程研究提供可靠的输入数据。


Experimental data of the β--decay half-lives for the nuclei with atomic number between 20 and 190 are investigated. We have systematically studied the shell effects and pairing effects on β--decay half-lives versus the decay energy Q and nucleon numbers (Z, N). An empirical formula has been proposed to calculate the β--decay half-lives of neutron-rich nuclei. The empirical formula is simple and has relatively few parameters. Experimental β--decay half-lives of the neutron-rich nuclei are well reproduced by the new formula. In addition, the extrapolating capacity of this formula has been checked with the very recent experimental data from RIKEN. The predicted half-lives for r-process relevant nuclei with the current formula can be served as the reliable input of r-process model calculations.
20Mgβ衰变谱学与15O(α,γ)19Ne反应(英文)
孙立杰, 徐新星, 林承键, 方德清, 王建松, 李智焕, 王玉廷, 李晶, 杨磊, 马南茹, 王康, 臧宏亮, 王宏伟, 李琛, 施晨钟, 聂茂武, 李秀芳, 李贺, 马军兵, 马朋, 金仕纶, 黄美容, 白真, 王建国, 杨峰, 贾会明, 张焕乔, 刘祖华, 包鹏飞, 王东玺, 杨彦云, 周远杰, 马维虎, 陈杰, 马余刚, 张玉虎, 周小红, 徐瑚珊, 肖国青
2017, 34(3): 431-436. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.431
摘要:
15O(α,γ)19Ne(p,γ)20Na反应链是高温CNO循环向快速质子俘获过程突破的一条关键路径,相关的反应率输入量可通过20Mg的β衰变可布居19Ne共振态并测量其衰变性质来获得。通过高效率高精度地测量20Mg β衰变中产生的质子与γ射线得到了20Mg衰变的详细信息,并构建了完整的衰变纲图,还进行了19Ne 4 033 keV共振态衰变性质的探索,获得了该态在20Mg β衰变中被布居的分支比上限。通过比20Mg和20O镜像能级跃迁的结果确认了同位旋非对称性,为检验相关理论模型提供了精确的实验数据。对于突破路径中有重要影响的19Ne 4 033 keV共振态的性质,有待更高统计的实验进一步研究。


The breakout from the hot CNO cycle to the rapid proton capture process can occur via the 15O(α,γ)19Ne(p,γ)20Na reaction sequence, and the β decay of 20Mg can be used as an alternative method to characterize some specific resonances, which will provide detailed nuclear structure input for reaction rate calculations. The reliable information on the decay properties and structure of 20Mg was obtained by measuring the emitted particles and γ-rays in the β decay with high efficiency and high resolution. Attempt was also made to search for the decay channels associated with the 4 033 keV resonance in 19Ne. To test fundamental symmetries, the transitions in the mirror decays of 20Mg and 20O were compared. The precise experimental data presented here would be important to constrain the theoretical calculations. It is desirable to clarify the astrophysically relevant problem by further experiments with improved statistics on the basis of the present work.
恒星氦燃烧关键反应12C(α,γ)16O天体物理S因子及其反应率
安振东, 马余刚, 范功涛, 陈振鹏
2017, 34(3): 437-445. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.437
摘要:
恒星氦燃烧阶段3α反应和12C(α,γ)16O反应相互竞争,两者的反应率共同决定了氦燃烧结束后12C与16O的丰度比,该比值是大质量恒星后继演化以及伴随的元素核合成过程的初始条件。目前,氦燃烧12C(α,γ)16O反应起始T9=0.2处,天体物理模型要求的反应率的精确度要低于10%,然而尚未有实验或理论给出满足要求的结果。最为直接和可靠地获取12C(α,γ)16O反应率的方法,就是尽可能往低能区测量其天体物理S因子,然后通过理论外推到感兴趣的能区。为此基于经典的R-矩阵理论,建立了适用于低能核反应的多道、多能级的约化R-矩阵理论来拟合几乎所有可用的16O系统的实验数据。配合使用协方差统计和误差传播理论,拟合外推得到了客观的、内部自恰的和唯一性好的12C(α,γ)16O反应天体物理S因子。总的外推S因子STOT(0.3 MeV)=162.7±7.3 keV·b,理论上首次给出达到恒星演化与元素核合成模型的最低要求的S因子。基于计算给出的全能区的S因子,数值积分给出了温度位于0.04 6 T9 6 10的12C(α,γ)16O天体物理反应率。在T9=0.2处,推荐的反应率为(7.83 ±0.35)×10-15 cm3mol-1s-1


During stellar helium burning, the rates of 3α and the 12C(α,γ)16O reaction, in competition with one another, determine the relative abundances of 12C and 16O in a massive star. The abundance ratio is the beginning condition of the following nucleosynthesis and star evolution of massive stars, which are extremely sensitive to the rate of 12C(α,γ)16O reaction at T9=0.2. The most direct and trustworthy way to obtain the reaction rate of the 12C(α,γ)16O reaction is to measure the S factor for that reaction to as low energy as possible, and to extrapolate to energies of astrophysical interest. Based on a new multilevel and multichannel reduced R-matrix theory for applications in nuclear astrophysics, we have obtained an accurate and self-consistent astrophysical S factor of 12C(α,γ)16O, by a global fitting for almost all available experimental data of 16O system, with the coordination of covariance statistics and error-propagation theory. The extrapolated S factor of 12C(α,γ)16O was obtained with a recommended value STOT (0.3 MeV)=162.7±7.3 keV·b. And the reaction rates of 12C(α,γ)16O for stellar temperatures between 0.04 6 T9 6 10 are provided. At T9=0.2, the reaction rate is (7.83 ±0.35)×10-15 cm3mol-1s-1, where stellar helium burning occurs.
10Be中子谱因子的实验研究
李二涛, 李志宏, 李云居, 郭冰, 颜胜权, 苏俊, 曾晟, 王友宝, 连钢, 刘建成, 甘林, 樊启文, 李鑫悦, 苏毅, 马田丽, 罗奇, 胡世鹏, 郝昕, 孙慧斌, 谌阳平, 周勇, 韩治宇, 裴常进, 柳卫平
2017, 34(3): 446-449. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.446
摘要:
核谱因子描述了单粒子轨道中核子的占有状态,在核结构和核天体物理中有重要的应用。目前国际上10Be中子谱因子的研究结果存在3倍左右的差异。本实验利用中国原子能科学研究院HI-13串列加速器的高灵敏度Q3D磁谱仪,对13C(9Be,10Be)12C反应角分布进行了精确测量。通过实验数据和扭曲波玻恩近似(DWBA)计算结果进行比较,导出了10Be的中子谱因子。该结果与转动不变壳模型理论及曾敏尔等的评价结果基本一致。利用该结果可以得到9Be(n,γ)10Be的天体物理反应率,评价该反应在相关天体环境中对CNO循环种子核12C的影响,为核结构和核天体物理提供可靠数据。


Spectroscopic factor describes the overlap between the initial and final states and gives some information on the occupancy of a given single-particle orbiting around nuclear. It plays an important role in a variety of topics on nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics. Nowadays, several experiments have been performed to study the neutron spectroscopic factor of 10Be, but the results have a big difference with each other. In order to clarify this discrepancy, new measurement is highly needed. In this work, the angular distribution of 13C(9Be,10Be)12C reaction was measured at the Q3D magnetic spectrometer of the HI-13 tandem accelerator, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing. And then, the neutron spectroscopic factor of 10Be was derived by normalizing the calculational differential cross-sections with the distorted-wave Born approximation to the experimental data. The present value is in good agreement with that obtained by Tsang et al. and also in good agreement with that derived from translationary invariant shell model calculation. One can use this result to calculate the 9Be(n, γ)10Be reaction rates and calculate its influence to the production of 12C.
122~125Sn中子谱因子的实验研究
甘林, 李志宏, 李云居, 苏俊, 郭冰, 韩治宇, 连钢, 李鑫悦, 裴常进, 谌阳平, 王友宝, 曾晟, 周勇, 李二涛
2017, 34(3): 450-453. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.450
摘要:
多个Sn同位素位于慢速中子俘获(s-)过程路径上,其中子谱因子可用于计算ASn(n,γ) A+1Sn直接辐射俘获的天体物理反应率,并可研究Sn同位素对s-过程核合成的贡献。本工作在中国原子能科学研究院HI-13串列加速器Q3D磁谱仪上,对实验室系下8°~66°范围内的122,124Sn(d,p)和(p,d)单中子转移反应角分布进行了测量。利用DWBA理论计算了转移反应角分布,并提取了122-125Sn的基态以及123,125Sn第一激发态的中子谱因子。其中,122Sn和124Sn的基态中子谱因子是首次从实验上获得。由于本工作成功鉴别开了123,125Sn的基态和第一激发态的效应,因此给出的谱因子比前人的结果更可信。


Several Tin isotopes are on the path of slow neutron capture (s-) process, and the direct components of (n, γ) reactions can be derived from their neutron spectroscopic factors. In the present work, the angular distributions of 122,124Sn(p, d) and (d, p) reactions are obtained using the high-precision Q3D magnetic spectrograph in Beijing HI-13 tandem accelerator in China Institute of Atomic Energy. The distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations are performed to extract the neutron spectroscopic factors of the ground state of 122-125Sn and the first excited state of 123,125Sn. The neutron spectroscopic factors of the ground state of 122Sn and 124Sn are firstly obtained in this work. As the events of the ground state and first excited state of 123,125Sn can be distinguished clearly by our experiment, the neutron spectroscopic factories of 123,125Sn are more reliable.
低能加速器质子束流性质的测量(英文)
王硕, 李阔昂, 许世伟, 马少波, 唐晓东, 何建军, 张宁涛, 苏俊, 谌阳平, 陈涵, 陈治均, 裴常进, 朱昊, 张子睿, 张乃波, 王守宇
2017, 34(3): 454-458. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.454
摘要:
中国锦屏地下实验室(CJPL)坐落于四川省锦屏山中,利用水电站修建的隧道建成。由于其本底环境极低,非常适合开展低本底实验测量。一台基于ECR源的400 kV强流加速器将安装在CJPL中,其可以为核天体物理实验提供流强为12 emA的质子束流,6 emA的He+束流和2.5 emA的He2+束流。拟通过非共振反应12C(p,γ)13N以及一系列的共振反应27Al(p,γ)28Si等,对加速器的束流能量进行精确刻度,对束流的能量展宽以及长期稳定性进行测量。由于该加速器正在中国原子能科学研究院进行地面调试,我们利用中国科学院近代物理研究所的320 kV研究平台,进行了12C(p,γ)13N和27Al(p,γ)28Si反应的测试实验。测量结果表明,在质子束流能量为224 keV时,束流的能量展宽约为1.0 keV,束流能量在连续4小时的测量期间,其晃动幅度远小于±200 eV。


China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL) was established inside the tunnels piercing Jinping Mountain in Sichuan Province, China, which can provide an ideal environment for low background experiment. A new 400 kV accelerator, with high current based on an ECR source, will be placed at this underground laboratory for nuclear astrophysics experiment. The beam characteristics of this accelerator, like absolute energy, energy spread, and long-term energy stability, will be determined by several wellknown resonance and non-resonance reactions. Due to the new accelerator still being under construction, the resonance reaction of 27Al(p, γ)28Si and non-resonance 12C(p, γ)13N were studied at the 320 kV highvoltage platform in Institute Modern Physics of CAS in Lanzhou. The energy spread of proton beam is about 1.0 keV at proton energy Ep=224 keV and the long-term energy stability of proton beam is much better than 200 eV during 4 hours measurement.
分会报告-核结构和高自旋核物理
70As(β++EC)衰变到70Ge的低自旋激发态(英文)
沈水法, 李燕, 沈洁洁, 石双惠, 余笑寒, 刘静怡, 曾寄萍, 阎玉鹏
2017, 34(3): 459-464. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.459
摘要:
通过70As的放射性衰变研究了70Ge的激发态,新发现能量为1 036.99,1 196.66,1 539.29和2 531.7 keV的四条新γ射线,重新确认了2 219.34 keV γ射线的跃迁位置,新确认496.74,1 295.24和1 417.24 keV这三条γ射线首次放入衰变纲图,本工作证实了1 881.67,2 325.42和2 424.41 keV γ射线的跃迁位置,建议了能量为4 243.10和5 265.81 keV的两个新能级,建立了新的衰变纲图,基于比较半衰期和γ跃迁分支比建议了一些能级的自旋-宇称。


The excited states of the 70Ge nucleus are investigated in radioactive decay of the 70As. Four new transitions with 1 036.99, 1 196.66, 1 539.29 and 2 531.7 keV are found for the first time. The position of 2 219.34 keV transition are reassigned, the transition positions of 496.74, 1 295.24 and 1 417.24 keV γ-rays are assigned for the first time, and the placements of 1 881.67, 2 325.42 and 2 424.41 keV γ-rays are confirmed in the present work. Two new levels, at 4 243.10 and 5 265.81 keV excitation energy, respectively, are proposed. The decay scheme is established and for a number of levels spin-parity assignments are suggested on the basis of logft values and γ-branching ratios.
192Tl高自旋态能级结构研究
贺创业, 郑云, 李聪博, 吴晓光, 李广生, 钟健, 陈启明, 朱保吉, 邓立涛, 周文奎, 樊启文
2017, 34(3): 465-468. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.465
摘要:
通过熔合蒸发反应181Ta(16O,5n)192Tl,在入射束流为97 MeV能量下,布居192Tl的高自旋态,更新了192Tl的能级纲图。共增加8条新能级,尝试性地指定了能级自旋,将负宇称晕带的能级推高到23-ħ。讨论了192Tl与相邻同位素奇奇核194,196,198Tl负宇称晕带的旋称劈裂与反转现象,发现随着中子数增加,196,198Tl在高自旋处出现了旋称反转,其原因可能是由于中子质子相互作用与科里奥利力相互竞争所致。


High spin states of 192Tl were populated by the 181Ta(16O, 5n)192Tl heavy ion fusion evaporation reaction at 97 MeV beam energy. A new level scheme with 8 new levels was constructed and the level spins were tentatively assigned. The negative yrast band was extended up to 23-ħ. Systematics of signature of inversion were also discussed for the negative yrast band of odd-odd Tl istopes. Signature inversion has been found in 196,198Tl with neutron number increasing in these four Tl isotopes, and it is explained by the competition between the strength of n-p interaction and Coriolis force.
原子核基态性质的系统研究
苏学斗, 齐胜美, 刘肖, 王艳召
2017, 34(3): 469-475. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.469
摘要:
在Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov(SHFB)理论框架下,利用SkOP1,SkOP2,SKC和SKD 4套新的Skyrme相互作用参数系统地研究了Ca,Ni,Sn和Pb同位素链上原子核的结合能、电荷半径等基态性质,并重点讨论了丰中子Ca核的新中子幻数以及Pb的同位素位移现象。通过与实验数据和SLy5相互作用参数的结果对比,发现这4套相互作用参数都能很好地再现结合能的实验数据,其预言精度比SLy5要高。对于丰中子Ca核,只有SKC和SKD相互作用参数能够再现N=28处的壳效应,而对于实验上发现的新幻数N=32和34,所有的相互作用参数均不能再现这一结果。对于电荷半径,发现所有的相互作用参数均不能很好地预言Ca同位素链电荷半径的演化规律以及Pb的同位素位移现象。另外,还将这些相互作用参数推广至远离β稳定线原子核的单粒子能级结构研究,发现其不适用于描述其随同位旋的演化行为。因此,为了更好地描述远离β稳定线原子核的宏观性质及单粒子能级,建议在拟合Skyrme相互作用参数时,除自旋-轨道耦合项包括合理的同位旋依赖外,还要考虑张量力成分。


The nuclear ground state properties of Ca, Ni, Sn and Pb isotopes, such as the binding energies, the charge radii, are studied systematically by 4 sets of new Skyrme parametrizations SKC, SKD, SkOP1 and SkOP2 in the framework of the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (SHFB) method. The new magic numbers of neutronrich Ca isotopes and the isotopic shift of Pb isotopes are discussed emphatically. By the comparisons between the calculations and the experimental data and results from the SLy5 interaction parametrization, it is found that the experimental binding energies can be reproduced accurately by all parametrizations. The calculated accuracies of SKC, SKD SkOP1 and SkOP2 parametrizations are higher than the ones of SLy5 parametrization. For the neutron-rich Ca nuclei, the shell effect of N=28 can be reproduced by the SKC and SKD parametrizations, but the magic numbers at N=32 and 34 are not found by the calculations of all the parametrizations. For the charge radii, the experimental evolution tendency of Ca isotopes and isotopic shift of Pb isotopes can not be reproduced by all the parametrizations. In addition, all Skyrme parametrizations are extended to study the structure of the nuclei far from the β stability line, it is shown that the single-particle energy evolutions with the isospin are not suitable for being studied by these parametrizations. Thus the tensor force component should be considered besides the isospin dependence in spin-orbit coupling term when the Skyrme interaction parametrizations are fitted.
Skyrme张量相互作用对可能的等待点原子核β衰变半衰期的影响(英文)
吴华, 白春林, 房栋梁, 张焕乔, 张锡珍
2017, 34(3): 476-480. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.476
摘要:
使用基于Skyrme相互作用的HFB+QRPA模型研究N~82和126的同中子异位素链的β-衰变的半衰期。在计算中所使用的张量相互作用和同位旋标量(IS)对相互作用都是很好地被约束了的。比较了张量相互作用和IS对相互作用对半衰期的影响。IS对相互作用的强度与相应的同位旋矢量(IV)对相互作用的强度相当时,对N~82和126的同中子异位素链中有大的中子过剩的原子核的半衰期影响很微弱。而张量相互作用采用最近约束的强度时对半衰期的影响非常显著。


The β-decay half-lives of N ~ 80 and 126 isotonic chains are calculated with HFB+QRPA models based on Skyrme force. In the calculations, the well constrained Skyrme tensor interaction and isoscalar spin-triplet (IS) pairing interaction are included so that to study their effects on the half-lives. The effects of tensor interaction and IS pairing interaction on the half-lives are compared. The IS pairing interaction with strength similar to that of isovector (IV) one produces only a trivial effect in N ~82 nuclei, and N ~126 nuclei with big neutron excess. While the tensor interaction with presently constrained strengths produces an obvious effect.
可能的原子核形状及硬度演化性质:基于能量面计算的系统分析(英文)
孟海燕, 王华磊, 柴清祯, 张莎, 杨婕, 柳敏良
2017, 34(3): 481-487. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.481
摘要:
基于(β2,γ,β4)形变空间下对-形变自洽的原子核能量面计算方法,系统研究分析了50 < Z < 82区偶偶核的形状及硬度演化特征。计算的平衡形变与其它理论预言及存在的实验值进行了对比。从相应的形变势能曲线提取了与β2及γ相关的硬度参数CβCγ,这与实验观测到的低位β及γ振动带信息相符。还简要讨论了转动情况下的硬度演化,例如基于蜈蚣型E-GOS曲线,表明存在不可忽略的振动效应。


Nuclear shape and stiffness evolutions in even-even nuclei with 50 < Z < 82 are systematically analyzed in terms of the pairing-deformation self-consistent nuclear-energy-surface calculation in (β2,γ,β4) deformation space. Calculated equilibrium deformations are presented and compared with other theoretical predictions and available experimental data. The stiffness parameters Cβ and Cγ respectively related to quadrupole deformations β2 and γ are determined from the deformation energy curves, which are consistent with the observed low-lying β and/or γ bands. The stiffness evolution under rotation along the yrast line is briefly discussed, e.g., on the basis of the centipidelike E-GOS curves, showing an unnegligible vibration effect.
大型壳模型计算中的截断效应对132Sn附近丰中子空穴核能级结构的影响
秦伟, 王韩奎, 孙扬, 张献图, 王莉华, 赵琳琳, 王宇杰
2017, 34(3): 488-492. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.488
摘要:
以双幻核132Sn以及附近的空穴核131Sn,130Sn,131In,130In,130Cd为例,研究了大型壳模型计算中的截断效应对该核区能级结构以及电四极跃迁的影响,其中截断包括了有无中子跨壳激发,以及限制轨道粒子数两种情况。计算结果表明,只有在允许质子跨壳激发的情况下才能给出130In与实验相符的基态能级,而允许两个中子的跨壳激发则会改善132Sn的低激发能级结构。此外中子壳芯激发也会对该核区空穴核的低激发能级有一定的影响,相应低能态之间的电四极跃迁则更加敏感地反映出了空间截断效应的影响。


With two different truncations, i.e., neutron core-excitation truncation and orbital particle-number truncation, the research is studied at the truncation effects in shell-model calculations by the hole nuclei of 130Sn, 131Sn, 130In, 130In and 130Cd. We found that the right ground state of 130In needs proton core-excitation in shell model space, and allowing two neutron core-excitations will promote the low-lying states in 132Sn. The neutron core-excitations will also slightly affect the low-lying levels of hole-nuclei close to 132Sn, and the values of BE2 between the corresponded low-lying states reflect more obviously to the neutron core-excitations.
手征胶子修正夸克平均场模型
邢学勇, 胡金牛, 申虹
2017, 34(3): 493-498. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.493
摘要:
这项工作利用考虑π介子与胶子效应的夸克平均场模型研究原子核结构的基本性质。在夸克平均场中,核子由三个束缚在谐振子势场中的组分夸克构成。描述强相互作用的量子色动力学必须满足手征对称性,此外夸克之间也需要通过交换胶子相互作用。因此,在夸克平均场模型中,对利用夸克势获得的核子质量考虑π介子修正与胶子修正。通过少数稳定有限核的结合能与半径实验值确定模型中的未知参数,获得了一组夸克平均场相互作用参数,QMF-NK。利用该组参数计算40Ca和208Pb的电荷密度分布,发现与实验值符合很好。随后获得了与经验值一致的对称核物质的饱和性质。包含π介子修正和胶子修正的夸克平均场模型能够更好地描述有限核和核物质的性质。


The basic properties of nuclear structure are studied within the quark mean field (QMF) model by taking the effects of pions and gluons into account. In QMF, the nucleon is made up of three constituent quarks confined by a harmonic oscillator potential. The quantum chromodynamics describing the strong interaction must satisfy the chiral symmetry and quarks interact with each other through exchange of gluons. Therefore pion correction and gluon correction are included in the nucleon mass obtained by using quark confinement potential in quark mean field model. We determine the unknown parameters in the model by fitting the experimental data of the binding energies and radii of several stable finite nuclei and obtain a set of parameters of quark mean field interaction, named QMF-NK. The charge density distributions of 40Ca and 208Pb are calculated, which are in good agreement with the experimental data. Later the saturation properties of symmetric nuclear matter which are consistent with the empirical data are obtained. With the pion and gluon corrections, the QMF model could treat finite nuclei and nuclear matter better.
分会报告-不稳定核反应和核结构
铅以上核结团放射性再研究(英文)
钱以斌, 任中洲
2017, 34(3): 499-504. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.499
摘要:
在密度依赖的结团模型下重新研究了铅以上原子核的结团放射性。根据由核电荷半径以及中子皮厚度的实验数据所提炼的子核和结团密度分布,通过双折叠模型得到了关键的结团-核芯作用势。然后结合库仑波函数边界条件求解了结团-子核相对运动的薛定谔方程,以得到衰变宽度。和我们以往没有考虑子核和结团密度具体分布的计算结果相比,现在得到的结团放射性衰变宽度明显增大。另外,随着结团中心越来越高的密度压低,衰变宽度的计算值会减小。


We revisit the cluster emission from trans-lead nuclei within the density dependent cluster model. According to the refined density distribution of daughter and cluster via the available experimental data on nuclear charge radii and neutron skin thickness, the crucial cluster-core potential is constructed by the double-folding model. Then the Schrödinger equation of the cluster-core relative motion is solved along the outgoing Coulomb wave function boundary condition to obtain the decay width. The present decay width of cluster radioactivity is clearly augmented as compared to our previous results without the specific concern of the density distribution of daughter and cluster. Moreover, the computed decay width reduces along with the increasingly depressed density in the cluster center.
分会报告-核物质状态方程与对称能
格点核子-核子势在核物质中的相对论效应(英文)
胡金牛, 申虹, 土岐博
2017, 34(3): 505-508. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.505
摘要:
利用最新的格点核子-核子势研究了核物质中的相对论效应。通过此格点核子-核子势场,首先我们构建一个包括π介子,σ介子以及ω介子的单玻色子交换势。势场中的介子-核子耦合常数以及截断动量通过拟合格点核力得到的核子-核子散射相移确定。随后采用非常成功的第一性原理多体计算方法Brueckner-Hartree-Fock模型,计算了核物质的基本性质。发现对称核物质的状态方程以及饱和性质在非相对论框架和相对论框架中有很明显的区别。在格点核力中,该相对论效应对核物质的结合能提供吸引的贡献。这与采用传统的核力计算得到的结果是相反的。


The relativistic effect in nuclear matter is investigated with the latest lattice nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential. A one-boson-exchange potential (OBEP) including three mesons, pion, σ meson and ω meson was constructed based on the lattice NN potential. The meson-nucleon coupling constants and cutoff momentums are determined by fitting the phase shifts of NN scattering from lattice NN potential. The properties of nuclear matter with this OBEP from lattice potential are calculated by one very successful ab initio many-body method, Brueckner-Hartree-Fock model. The equations of state and saturation properties of symmetric nuclear matter present very obvious different behaviors in non-relativistic and relativistic frameworks. The relativistic effect plays attractive contributions with the components of S and D waves in lattice NN potential, which is opposite comparing to the relativistic effect from the conventional NN potential.
中子星内部强子-夸克相变的有限尺度效应研究
武旭浩, 申虹
2017, 34(3): 509-513. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.509
摘要:
在致密星体内部极高密度条件下,强子物质可能发生退禁闭相变成为夸克物质,即强子-夸克相变。这种相变过程对于中子星的性质有着重要影响。考虑库仑能和表面能的影响,即有限尺度效应,相变过程中的混杂相包含了被称为pasta相的几何结构。强子-夸克共存相的平衡条件是通过求总能量的最小值得到的。采用相对论平均场(RMF)模型来描述强子物质相,采用Nambu-Jona-Lasinio(NJL)模型来描述夸克物质相。有限尺度效应一定程度上增加了中子星的最大质量,增加幅度取决于强子-夸克表面张力的大小。有限尺度效应能够降低混杂相的范围,其结果介于Gibbs结构和Maxwell结构的结果之间。研究结果表明,中子星中可能包含一个混杂相的核心部分,其大小受到表面张力等参数的影响。


It is generally considered that hadron matter may undergo a deconfinement phase transition becoming quark matter at very high density in massive neutron stars. This hadron-quark phase transition has important impact on neutron stars, which has received much attention. We consider finite-size effect in this phase transition process, which contains the impact of Coulomb energy and surface energy. By including this effect, the mixed phase forms the pasta structures. The equilibrium conditions for coexisting hadronic and quark phases are derived by minimizing the total energy including the surface and Coulomb contributions. We employ the relativistic mean-field(RMF) model to describe the hadronic phase, while the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio(NJL) model is used for the quark phase. We conclude that the finite-size effect will raise the stiffness of EOS, and then increase the maximum mass of neutron stars, which depend on the value of surface tension. Our results show that finite-size effects can significantly reduce the region of the mixed phase, and the results lie between those from the Gibbs and Maxwell constructions. We show that a massive star may contain a mixed phase core and its size depends on the surface tension of the hadron-quark interface.
分会报告-低中能核-核碰撞
20MeV以下快中子与56Fe非弹性散射截面的分歧研究
钱晶, 葛智刚, 刘廷进, 卢涵林, 周祖英, 阮锡超, 陈国长, 王朝辉, 聂阳波, 吴海成
2017, 34(3): 514-519. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.514
摘要:
56Fe的非弹性散射截面在核装置中子输运计算中扮演着重要的角色,但无论从实验数据还是从评价数据,非弹性散射截面都存在很大分歧,它的数据直接影响到核装置的设计、建造与运行维护。本工作从实验数据本身出发,深入分析了不同实验室测得的847 keV的γ产生截面的分歧,经转化后补充非弹性散射截面的实验空白能区,并同时利用满足全截面、去弹截面等截面自洽关系的评价方法推荐了高精度的快中子与56Fe的非弹反应截面结果。积分检验表明,新的非弹截面的改进使得评价数据与积分实验结果一致,较CENDL-3.1的评价数据结果有显著改善。


Knowledge about the inelastic scattering cross section of 56Fe is very important in neutron transportation calculation. However there are great discrepancies not only between experimental data but also between evaluated data. More detail analysis was performed for inelastic scattering cross section in the fast range up to 20 MeV where there are significant differences among the main evaluated libraries, mainly caused by the different inelastic scattering cross section measurements. The large discrepancies on 56Fe(n, n1'γ) cross section which could fill the neutron energy blank of the 56Fe(n,inl) were clarified and were converted to the inelastic scattering cross section of 56Fe. And the high-quality results were evaluated by using the unitarity constrain among total cross section, noelastic reaction and other reactions. The integral experiment result indicates that the new evaluated result of inelastic cross section brings greater improvement than that of CENDL-3.1.
重离子核反应中丰中子余核产额的标度规律
程瑞学, 宋一丹, 代智涛, 马春旺
2017, 34(3): 520-524. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.520
摘要:
在重离子碰撞(HICs)的实验数据和动力学模拟的反应中发现了丰中子余核产额的标度现象。在这种标度现象中,两个同位旋不同的炮弹碎裂反应产生的余核中,不同中子丰度差的余核的信息熵不确定度的差具有一致的分布。利用反对称化分子动力学模型(AMD)模拟并联合退激发模型(GEMINI)模拟了140 AMeV 58,64Ni+9Be碰撞体系中余核的产额,并展示了实验测量的余核已经理论模拟得到的余核的标度现象。由于信息熵方法对反应系统是否处于平衡状态没有要求,不仅可以用于处于平衡态系统的核物质研究,也可以用于动力学变化过程中的核物质性质研究。信息熵方法将为HICs中的核物质演化研究提供新的理论分析方法。


A scaling phenomena has been discovered for fragments produced in heavy-ion collisions both in the measured experiments and in the simulated reactions by transport model. In this scaling phenomena, the information entropy uncertainty difference between isobars with different neutron-excess has a uniform distribution between two reactions. The simulated reactions of 140 AMeV 58,64Ni+9Be by using the asymmetric molecular dynamics(AMD) model plus the sequential decay code GEMINI are analyzed to show the scaling phenomena of fragments. Since the application of information entropy theory does not require the system to be in equilibrium, it can be used both in the analysis of transport model and thermodynamics models. The advantage of the information entropy theory provides a new method to study the dynamical evolution of nuclear matter inheavy-ion collisions.
140AMeV 58,64Ni+9Be反应中同位旋标度规律的研究
乔春源, 马春旺, 牛菲, 许景丽, 丁甜甜, 宋一丹
2017, 34(3): 525-528. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.525
摘要:
利用反对称化的分子动力学(AMD)模型模拟140 AMeV 58,64Ni+9Be反应,并利用同位旋标度法研究两相似反应系统的△μn(p)/T随时间演化趋势。分析比较不同碰撞参数和不同反应系统间的△μn(p)/T随时间演化结果,结果表明碰撞参数对重核的对称能影响大,系统不对称度越大对对称能的影响越大,为间接研究激发核体系对称能系数的能量依赖提供了帮助。


We have simulated the reactions 140 AMeV 58,64Ni+9Be by antisymmetric molecular dynamics model (AMD) and studied the evolution of △μn(p)/T with collision time from 20 fm/c to 1 000 fm/c. To study nuclear symmetry energy influencing factors, a comparative analysis has been proceed among theses results with different impact parameters and the difference reactions system. The results show that the impact parameters have a great influence on the symmetry energy of the heavy nucleus, and the greater the asymmerty degree of the system, the greater the influence on the symmetry energy. These results are helpful for the indirect study of the energy dependence of the symmetry energy coefficient of the excited nuclear system.
分会报告-聚变和裂变动力学
同位旋对用裂变截面探测鞍点前摩擦的影响
田舰, 叶巍
2017, 34(3): 529-533. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.529
摘要:
耦合了轻粒子发射的随机Langevin模型被用于计算三个Bi裂变系统因核耗散效应引起的相对于标准统计模型预计的裂变截面值的变化,σfdrop作为激发能的函数。发现209Bi的σfdrop要大于202Bi和195Bi的σfdrop,这表明高同位旋系统209Bi的裂变截面对摩擦强度有更大的敏感性。该结果建议,当实验上使用裂变激发函数来更精确地提取鞍点前摩擦强度时,应产生具有高同位旋的复合核。进而,通过Langevin计算拟合p+206Pb和p+209Bi反应的裂变激发函数数据,提取的鞍点前摩擦强度为(3~5)×1021 s-1


Langevin models that are coupled with particle emission are applied to calculate the drop of fission cross section caused by friction over its standard statistical-model value, σfdrop, as a function of excitation energy for three Bi nuclei with different isospins. We find that σfdrop become larger for 209Bi than for 202Bi and 195Bi, indicating a greater sensitivity of fission cross section to friction for high-isospin 209Bi. These results suggest that, to more accurately determine the presaddle dissipation strength by measuring fission excitation functions, it is best to populate those compound systems with a high isospin. Furthermore, we analyze the data of fission excitation functions measured in p + 209Bi and p + 208Pb reactions, which yield high-isospin 210Po and 209Bi systems, and extract a presaddle friction strength of (3-5)×1021 s-1 by comparing Langevin simulations with these experimental data.
近垒及垒下能区28Si+174Yb体系的裂变碎片质量分布
王东玺, 林承键, 贾会明, 杨峰, 徐新星, 杨磊, 马南茹, 孙立杰, 包鹏飞, 张焕乔, 刘祖华
2017, 34(3): 534-538. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.534
摘要:
使用两块大面积平行板雪崩计数器,测量了近垒及垒下28Si+174Yb熔合裂变碎片质量-角度关联分布及质量分布。质量-角度二维图显示在该反应能量区间内并没有发现明显的准裂变成分。运用单高斯曲线拟合了裂变碎片的质量分布并抽取了质量宽度。结果表明:在库仑势垒以上,质量宽度随着反应能量的升高而增大;在库仑势垒以下能区,发现质量宽度随着反应能量的降低而呈现轻微增大的趋势。运用鞍点统计模型对本次实验数据拟合发现,需用比文献给出的更大的刚度系数才能重现实验结果,其物理原因还需要进一步研究。


In order to study the fission mechanism, the mass distributions and mass-angle distributions of the fission fragments for 28Si+174Yb were measured near the Coulomb barrier. The mass-angle correlations do not indicate any possible quasi-fission events in this bombarding energy range. The mass distributions were fitted by the single Gaussian distribution and then the mass widths were extracted. At above-barrier energies, the mass widths were found to increase with the energy. However, the mass widths show slight increase with decreasing energy below the barrier. Additionally, the mass widths can not be reproduced in the framework of the saddle statistic model with the given parameter, so further study is still needed.
分会报告-超重核合成与反应机制
46,50Ti+124Sn熔合反应中耦合道效应的理论研究(英文)
王兵, 赵维娟, 赵恩广, 周善贵
2017, 34(3): 539-544. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.539
摘要:
近库仑位垒重离子俘获与熔合是一个典型的多位垒穿透过程。在本征道的理论框架下,多反应道的耦合会使得单个位垒分离成一系列的分立位垒。基于位垒分布的思想,我们最近发展了一个经验的耦合道(ECC)模型,并系统地研究了220个反应体系的俘获激发函数。最近,实验报道了熔合反应46,50Ti+124Sn俘获激发函数的测量结果。本文将简要介绍该ECC模型,并结合通用熔合函数(UFF)的约化方法,利用该模型研究熔合反应46,50Ti+124Sn中的耦合道效应。UFF的约化结果表明,相比于50Ti+124Sn,46Ti+124Sn的垒下俘获截面有额外的增强。ECC模型成功地再现了实验测得的俘获激发函数,并表明,46Ti+124Sn垒下俘获截面的额外增强来源于正Q值的中子转移效应。


The heavy-ion capture and fusion processes at energies near the Coulomb barrier can be treated as a multi-dimensional barrier penetration problem. In the eigenchannel framework, the couplings to other channels split the single potential barrier into a set of discrete barriers. Based on the concept of the barrier distribution, we have developed an empirical coupled-channel (ECC) model and performed a systematic study of capture excitation functions for 220 reaction systems. Recently, an experiment was reported in which the capture excitation functions of reactions 46,50Ti+124Sn were measured. In this work, we review the ECC model briefly and use this model together with the universal fusion function (UFF) prescription to study the coupled-channel effects in fusion reactions 46,50Ti+124Sn. The reduced fusion functions show that the sub-barrier capture cross sections of 46Ti+124Sn exhibit an extra enhancement as compared with those of 50Ti+124Sn. The results from the ECC model reproduce the experimental capture excitation functions successfully and show that this extra enhancement of the sub-barrier cross sections for 46Ti+124Sn can be ascribed to the positive Q value neutron transfer effect.
分会报告-中高能核物理
中高能28Si碎裂截面研究进展
李俊生, 党英华, 张东海
2017, 34(3): 545-550. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.545
摘要:
介绍了利用CR-39探测器对28Si与不同靶作用的电荷变化总截面和分截面的研究进展,给出723AMeV 28Si与碳靶作用电荷变化总截面和分截面的最新实验结果。对28Si与靶核反应电荷变化总截面和分截面与束流能量和靶核质量的关系进行了讨论,发现束流能量大于200 AMeV时,中高能28Si与不同靶核反应电荷变化总截面与束流能量无关,分截面表现出明显的奇偶效应,且随靶核质量数的增加而增加。


In this paper, the development of the total and partial charge changing cross sections of 28Si ions beam in different targets using the CR-39 detectors are reviewed. The newest experimental results of the total and partial charge changing cross sections of 28Si in carbon target at 723 AMeV are presented. The dependence of the target mass and the cross sections of 28Si including the total and the partial charge changing cross sections are discussed. It is found that the total charge changing cross sections of 28Si are independent of the energy when the energy of the ions beam is greater than 200 AMeV. The partial charge changing cross sections show an obviously odd-even effect, and increase with the increasing of the mass number of the target.
关于在HIAF-BRing上开展自旋物理研究的提议(英文)
勾伯兴, ENGELS Ralf
2017, 34(3): 551-556. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.551
摘要:
国家重大科技基础设施"强流重离子加速器装置"(High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility,HIAF)已由国家发改委批准立项并开始建设。建成之后,HIAF将为微观物质结构和重离子应用等研究提供很好的实验平台。HIAF的加速储存环(Booster Ring,BRing)设计可以加速最高动量为11.9 GeV/c的高流强质子束流。因此,HIAF-BRing将为GeV能区的核物理和强子物理研究带来新的机遇。另一方面,极化实验是研究微观物质及其相互作用的有力工具。我们提议启动相关物理和极化技术的预研工作,为在HIAF-BRing上开展自旋物理研究打下基础。


The construction of the future scientific facility High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF) in China has started. Once established, HIAF will provide excellent conditions for fundamental investigations on both matter structure and heavy-ion applications. The booster ring (BRing) of HIAF is designed to accelerate high-intensity protons with the maximum momentum of 11.9 GeV/c. Therefore it will bring new opportunities for the nuclear and hadron physics in the GeV region. Polarized experiments have been proved as a powerful tool in the explorations of the building blocks of matter. We propose to initiate a pre-investigation for the related physics and polarization techniques, which will lay the foundation of the spin physics at the HIAF-BRing.
相对论重离子碰撞手征电荷分离效应的研究
冯笙琴, 裴蕾, 孙飞, 艾鑫, 钟洋, 殷中宝
2017, 34(3): 557-562. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.557
摘要:
相对论重离子碰撞的拓扑荷作用破坏作用平面两侧不同手征性的夸克数目的平衡,从而引起P和CP破坏特征。本工作主要分析RHIC和LHC能区的手征电荷分离作用,分析手征电荷分离随碰撞中心度、碰撞能量和核屏蔽等依赖关系。并未发现手征电荷分离效应与碰撞能量大小有非常紧密的依赖关系,但发现核屏蔽效应对手征电荷分离有重要的影响,与不考虑屏蔽效应相比,考虑屏蔽效应会使手征分离效应明显压低,由于屏蔽效应出现,使得a++a--)的分布与a+-a-+)分布并不对称。并且还发现手征分离效应主要发生在碰撞参量较大的周边碰撞,越接近中心碰撞,手征分离效应几乎可以忽略。


The topological charge interactions in relativistic heavy ion collisions cause quark chirality imbalance, resulting in charge separation under the strong magnetic field and local P and CP violation. In this paper, the chiral charge separation at RHIC and LHC energies is systematically analyzed as functions of the collision centrality, the collision energy and the nuclear shielding factor. It is found that there is not a very close dependence of the chiral charge separation effect on the collision energies, but that has an important dependence on nuclear shielding factor. Compared with the non-shielding effect, the shielding effect can reduce the chiral separation effect obviously. Due to the shielding effect, the distribution of a++(a--) and the distribution of a+-(a-+) are asymmetric. One also finds that chiral separation effect, which is almost negligible when more close to the central collision, occurs mainly in the peripheral collision for larger impact parameter.
强子物质中的介子-介子散射(英文)
许晓明
2017, 34(3): 563-568. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.563
摘要:
建立了一个夸克交换模型和提出了一个夸克-反夸克湮灭模型来研究介子-介子散射。从量子色动力学我们得到一个依赖于温度的夸克作用势。从微扰量子色动力学推导对应于夸克-反夸克湮灭和产生的跃迁势。模型给出基态介子质量的实验值,并且在玻恩近似下能说明真空中阈能附近的π-π弹性散射相移的实验值。从S矩阵元出发,推导散射的跃迁振幅和截面公式。计算出涉及π,ρ,K,K*的反应的非极化截面。发现这些截面具有强烈的温度依赖性。


We have established a quark-interchange model and have proposed a quark-antiquark annihilation model to study meson-meson scattering. From QCD we obtain a temperature-dependent quark potential. The transition potential corresponding to quark-antiquark annihilation and creation is derived in perturbative QCD. The experimental ground-state meson masses are reproduced and the experimental data of elastic phase shifts for ππ scattering near the threshold energy in vacuum can be accounted for in the Born approximation. Starting from S-matrix element, we derive the transition amplitude and the cross section for the scattering. Unpolarised cross sections for reactions involving π, ρ, K and K* are calculated. Remarkable temperature dependence of the cross sections is found.
夸克和弦模型中非奇异轻介子的类雷吉谱(英文)
郑斌斌, 贾多杰
2017, 34(3): 569-574. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.569
摘要:
本工作重新考察了相对论弦模型和准相对论夸克模型中轻介子的类雷吉谱。基于辅助场技术,提出了非奇异轻介子的一个解析质量公式,由此推导出了一个准线性的Regge-Chew-Frautschi轨迹关系,并将此关系用相应介子的实验数据(PDG)进行了检验。检验结果表明,和实验观测数据比较,夸克模型对介子质量的预言与弦模型的相符,但在角动量较大时,夸克模型的预言稍微优于弦模型。


We revisit the Regge-like spectra of light mesons in the relativistic string model and the simirelativistic quark model. An analytical mass formula is proposed for light mesons based on the auxiliary field technique, and a quasi-linear Regge-Chew-Frautschi plot with flavor dependence is derived and verified with the experimental data(PDG) for light mesons.The results show that the quark model predictions for meson masses agree with those of the string model, but are slightly better when the angular momentum is relatively large as compared with the observed data.
分会报告-强作用相变
改进的PNJL模型下QCD的相图
唐占铎, 邵国运, 高雪艳, 高宁, 贺伟博
2017, 34(3): 575-579. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.575
摘要:
Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio(PNJL)模型是研究强相互作用物质性质的使用最为广泛的有效模型之一。在PNJL模型的基础上考虑了手征凝聚和Polyakov圈之间的纠缠作用,并且引入了化学势修正的Polyakov有效势,由此得到了化学势依赖的entangled PNJL(μEPNJL)模型。在平均场框架下的计算结果表明:相较于原始的PNJL模型,由μEPNJL模型计算得到的临界点(CEP)朝着温度更高、化学势更小处移动,并且手征对称性恢复相变和退禁闭相变在较大的化学势范围内都重合得很好。通过与STAR合作组在相对论重离子对撞机(RHIC)上进行的净质子数分布的测量结果相比,可以发现,通过适当的参数调节,由μEPNJL模型计算得到的CEP更加靠近实验预言的CEP可能存在的区域。


Polyakov-Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model is one of the most popular effective quark models to investigate the properties of strongly interacting matter. Based on the PNJL model, we consider the entanglement interactions between the chiral condensate and Polyakov-loop, as well as the chemical potential modification of Polyakov-loop potential simultaneously, which is named μEPNJL model. Compared with the original PNJL model, the calculations in the mean field approximation show that the critical end point (CEP) given in the μEPNJL model moves towards higher temperature and smaller chemical potential in the T-μ phase diagram. Besides, the chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement phase transition coincide well in a wide range of chemical potential. Comparing our calculations with the measurement of the moments of net-proton multiplicity distributions at Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) by STAR Collaboration, we find that the CEP given by μEPNJL model can be closer to the range predicted by the experiment through appropriate parameter adjustment.
分会报告-加速器和核探测仪器及制靶技术
用于强流中子发生器的低能束流传输线的设计模拟
贾泽华, 李公平, 潘小东, 魏绪波, 武启, 张世旭, 吴王锁
2017, 34(3): 580-585. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.580
摘要:
兰州大学设计研发的ZF-400强流中子发生器设计D-T中子产额6×1012 n/s,主要由ECR离子源、低能束流传输线(LEBT)、加速管、旋转靶等部分组成。LEBT负责将从离子源引出的束流进行分析聚焦并注入到加速管中。LEBT对束流的聚焦及分析的好坏程度决定了加速管中束流的损失程度、中子的产额以及靶的寿命。本工作就该强流中子发生器所需的低能传输线进行了设计。使用螺线管、分析磁铁和四极透镜组合的方案。利用TRACK软件对此方案进行模拟,得到符合要求的束流线及元件的参数。用TraceWin进行了验证模拟,验证结果符合要求。另外,通过软件模拟确定了杂质离子损失的位置,据此设计了束流管道冷却方案。通过模拟发现,这种透镜的组合方式可以让整个LEBT以较低的功率获得低损失、高纯度的打靶束流。


The ZF-400 Intense Neutron Generator, which is designed by Lanzhou University with an expected neutron yield of 6×1012 n/s, is consist of ECR ion source, low energy beam transport (LEBT) line, accelerating tube and rotating target. The beam extracted from ECR source is analyzed and focused through LEBT, then, the beam is introduced into the accelerating tube. The focus and analysis ability of LEBT is very important for the beam loss, neutron yield and target's life. A LEBT line for intense neutron generator is designed in this paper, the project consisted of a solenoid, a bend magnet and three quadrupole lens. The qualified LEBT and its parameters have been got through the simulation with TRACK code. Then TraceWin program was employed to check this simulation and the result satisfied our requirement. Besides, the loss position of impurity ions was known through the simulation, and a project of beam line's cooling system was designed according to this result. Through the simulation, we find the optimal lens combination plan which can obtain lower beam loss and higher beam purity at low running power of LEBT.
BC501A中子探测器的能量刻度及其在聚乙烯中子学积分实验中的应用
罗飞, 韩瑞, 陈志强, 聂阳波, 石福栋, 张苏雅拉吐
2017, 34(3): 586-590. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.586
摘要:
利用标准放射伽玛源(22Na,137Cs)测量了尺寸为Φ5.08 cm×2.54 cm的BC501A中子探测器的脉冲幅度谱,并利用MCNP软件进行了模拟,详细考虑了探测器的几何尺寸、材料、以及能量分辨函数,计算结果很好地再现了实验数据,精确地确定了康普顿边缘的位置,完成了BC501A中子探测器的能量刻度。并采用14.8 MeV的T(d,n)4He中子源对聚乙烯样品开展了中子学积分实验,结果表明,BC501 A中子探测器的能量刻度过程以及聚乙烯中子学积分实验数据的处理过程是完全合理并且可靠的。


The pulse-height spectra of the BC501A scintillator (Φ5.08 cm×2.54 cm) were measured using 22Na, 137Cs γ-ray source, in which MCNP simulation was applied. The simulated pulse-height spectra show a good agreement with the measured data considering the geometry, material and energy resolution function of the scintillator. The position of the Compton edge has been precisely determined and an accurate energy calibration of BC501A scintillator was also achieved. An neutronics integral experiment of polythene with 14.8 MeV T(d, n)4He neutron source was carried out. The results indicate that the procedures of the energy calibration experiment of BC501A scintillator and the data analyzing in the polythene integral experiment are reasonable and reliable.
基于LC延迟电路的双层多丝正比室的研制
张兴, 胡荣江, 鲁辰桂, 杨贺润, 马朋, 张俊伟, 关远帆, 魏向伦, 段利敏, 王建松, 郑勇
2017, 34(3): 591-597. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.591
摘要:
描述了为兰州放射性粒子束流线(RIBLL Ⅱ)上测量束流径迹而研制的一种基于LC延迟电路的双层多丝正比室(MWPC)。该探测器的探测灵敏面积为100 mm×80 mm,位置信号由阴极丝引出并通过LC延迟电路读出。探测器由两套完整的多丝正比室组成,每套的阳极丝夹在两层平行的阴极丝之间,阳极丝和阴极丝相互垂直。两套阴极丝相互垂直给出入射粒子的二维位置信息。为了增大感应信号以提高探测效率,将每套位置对应的阴极丝合并成一路接入LC延迟电路。用55Fe-5.9 keV X射线源均匀照射探测器的灵敏区域,测试表明其具有良好的位置灵敏一致性。用X射线源通过准直狭缝扫描整个探测器的灵敏区域,得到X,Y层的位置线性度均好于0.999;其位置分辨(σ)分别为199.9 μm和154.0 μm,目前,该探测器已成功用于RIBLL Ⅱ的实验中。


A double-layer Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) with 100 mm×80 mm active area has been developed for Radioactive Ion Beam Line in Lanzhou(RIBLL Ⅱ). The position information has been obtained by a LC delay circuit readout method. Being called of double-layer MWPC, it is composed of two full MWPCs, each consists of an anode plane sandwiched between two parallel cathode planes, anode wires and cathode wires are perpendicular to each other. In order to improve the detection efficiency, the cathode wires of corresponding position are combined to enhance inductive signal. The cathode wires of two full MWPCs are orthogonally placed to give two coordinates of the incident particles. The sensitivity uniformity is also found to be relatively good and the position resolution of X, Y direction are measured to be 199.9 and 154.0 μm using a 55Fe-5.9 keV X ray, respectively. The position linearity of X, Y direction are as good as 0.999 for whole sensitive area of the detector. The detector has been used successfully on the experiment at RIBLL Ⅱ.
一维快装置中心反应率模拟计算的灵敏度和不确定度分析
王文明, 吴海成, 刘萍, 张环宇
2017, 34(3): 598-603. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.598
摘要:
采用广义微扰理论和离散纵标输运计算方法,推导了中心反应率比值对重要核反应参数的灵敏度的计算公式。以一维快基准装置Jezebel-Pu239为例,计算了其中心反应率比值对关键核数据的灵敏度,并结合多群协方差数据,分析了其中心反应率比值计算中由于核数据的不确定度所引入的不确定度及其来源。根据计算结果以及评价数据的协方差信息,建议对Pu-239的非弹截面数据进行更精细的评价,以期降低反应率比的模拟计算不确定度。


On the base of the generalized perturbation theory and SN method, the theoretical model for calculating the sensitivity and uncertainty of reaction rates ratio (RRR) versus nuclear data is developed. Taking Jezebel-Pu239 critical benchmarking facility as an example, the sensitivity of F49/F25 ratio versus important nuclear data is calculated, as well as the uncertainty arising from the nuclear data. Basing on the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis as well as the covariance information of input evaluated data, refined evaluation of the inelastic data of Pu-239 is considered as a feasible measure to reduce the uncertainty of reaction rates ratios.
低本底液闪中子探测器的材料测试研究
李学洋, 杜强, 刘书魁, 林兴德, 幸浩洋, 唐昌建, 朱敬军
2017, 34(3): 604-610. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.604
摘要:
为测量中国锦屏地下实验室(China JinPing underground Laboratory,CJPL)极低通量的中子本底,需要建造大型快中子液体闪烁体探测器。建造探测器需要选用低放射性本底材料,并且化学性质稳定,不与液体闪烁体发生反应而影响液体闪烁体(EJ-335)的性能。为此,建造了小型液闪探测器,在其中分别放入聚四氟乙烯、无氧铜、氟橡胶、全氟醚橡胶这4种材料进行长期浸泡,并分别进行了如下测试:液闪长时间浸泡各种材料前后液闪的吸收光谱测试;用60Co γ源检测小型液闪探测器光产额随时间的变化情况;用Am-Be中子源检验探测器在浸泡前后的n-γ甄别性能。最终实验结果表明,聚四氟乙烯和全氟醚这2种材料与液闪有很好的兼容性,可作为大型快中子液闪探测器的容器和密封圈的备选材料。


In order to measure the flux and spectrum of neutron background which is extremely low in China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL), liquid scintillator detector with large scale used to detect fast neutron need to be fabricated. Surrounding materials used in detector require the excellent performance, such as low radioactivity as well as stable chemical properties, which do not react with liquid scintillator, so as to avoid affecting the performance of detector. Polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE), highly purified no-oxygen copper, fluororubber and perfluoroelastomer had been put in a small detector and soaked for a long time. The change of absorption spectrum and light yield along with time as well as the performance of n-γ discrimination after soaked were tested. The results show that PTFE and Perfluoroelastomer are compatible with liquid scintillator, which offers a reference for the selection of material used in container and seal of liquid scintillator detector used to detect fast neutron.
分会报告-核技术应用和核反应堆物理与材料
铀氧化物中238U含量的定量研究
李宛琼, 罗小兵, 孙琦, 汪超, 夏川东, 李子越
2017, 34(3): 611-616. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.611
摘要:
准确定量铀氧化物样品中238U的含量对于裂变产额测量等工作具有重要意义,其定量方法的研究对于涉及238U的绝对测量的诸多实验都具有参考价值。利用四川大学2.5 MeV质子静电加速器产生的准单能中子对八氧化三铀样品进行中子活化,用高纯锗探测器测量活化产物的β衰变子体239Np的277.6 keV特征γ射线,利用已知的活化截面,算出样品中238U的质量占比为79.1%,不确定度为6.2%。利用电感耦合等离子体质谱法对样品中238U的含量进行了测量,其质量占比为59.2%。此外,基于EA3000元素分析仪、卡尔费休电位滴定仪和TGA-DSC2同步热分析质谱联用仪,测知样品中不含N元素,含水量在2.2%以下。并利用PIXE方法排除了样品中含有Al元素以上杂质,利用EPBS方法测知样品中U/O原子数比为1:3.6,误差约2%,推知样品中238U质量占比为80%,验证了活化法测得的238U含量。最终测得样品中238U的质量占比为79.1%,不确定度6.2%。对照按U3O8分子式折算的84.5%,考虑到水分含量等,此结果合理。


The accurate quantification of 238U in uranium oxides is of great importance for measurements of fission yield. The study for the method of 238U quantification has significance to lots of experiments involving absolute measurement of 238U. The reaction (n, γ) in the triuranium octoxide samples was induced by T(p,n)3He quasi-monoenergetic neutrons provided by the 2.5 MeV proton electrostatic accelerator in Sichuan University. The 277.6 keV characteristic γ ray of 239Np that comes from β-decay of the activation product 239U was detected by a HPGe detector. With the known (n, γ) cross section, the mass percentage of 238U in samples was determined to be 79.1%, with the uncertainty of 6.2%. ICP-MS was also used in the quantification of 238U in samples, its result was 59.2%. Meanwhile, the samples were analyzed by other several methods and the results showed that less than 2.2% H2O, no nitrogen, and no other impurity elements above Al were contained in the samples. EPBS was used to measure the atomic ratio of U and O and it was found that the mass percentage of 238U in samples was about 80%, verifying the result 79.1% of INAA.
黄冶窑白瓷的物相和微观结构研究
赵维娟, 方可可, 王东颜, 孙新民, 郭木森, 赵宏, 张斌
2017, 34(3): 617-623. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.617
摘要:
以黄冶窑四个时期的白瓷样品作为研究对象,利用X射线衍射仪(XRD)和扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对样品进行分析,结果表明:黄冶窑白瓷胎的物相基本相同,主要是莫来石、α石英和方石英、未熔石英和少量的粘土相;黄冶窑白瓷釉中有气泡存在,釉中气泡为圆形,釉中存在微米级的针状或柱状钙长石晶体,釉存在分相结构,且分相结构与析晶相伴而生;黄冶窑白瓷胎中有气孔、未熔的石英颗粒、较大的Ti颗粒、莫来石晶体和石英晶体。


The white porcelain samples of the four periods of Huangye kiln were studied in this paper, and the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the material phase is basically the same of the white porcelain bodies from Huangye kiln, and mainly mullite, alpha quartz and cristobalite, unmelted quartz and a small amount of clay phase; There are some round bubbles in HuangYe kiln white porcelain, glazes, so are some feldspathic crystals with micro-level needles or columnar. It is evident to observe phase separation structure, which is accompanied by the birth. Apart from some pores, unfused quartz particles, larger Ti particles, mullite crystals and quartz crystals can also be found in the embryo of Huangye kiln white porcelain.
用于兰州彭宁离子阱的多反射飞行时间质量分析器的设计和优化
王永生, 田玉林, 王均英, 周小红, 黄文学
2017, 34(3): 624-629. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.624
摘要:
MRTOF-MS是最近几年发展起来的新型质谱仪,较传统的飞行时间质谱仪而言,MRTOF-MS质量分辨本领更高。开发了一种用于MRTOF-MS设计的新方法,该方法由参数设置部分和离子运动计算部分共同组成;分全局搜索和局部细化两个步骤,可用于优化MRTOF-MS的几何构型、计算不同条件下的最佳电压设置组合。基于这种方法,设计了一种机械结构与国际上同类设备不同的MRTOF-MS,该设备可用于高精度原子核质量测量,也可用于快速质量选择,为LPT提供纯净的目标核。通过优化,确定了其几何参数和电压参数,讨论了不同电极上的电压偏差对质量分辨本领的影响,定量地分析了电源的精度要求。优化结果表明:MRTOF-MS的最佳漂移长度约为400 mm;在最佳电压设置下,当40Ar1+的总飞行时间为6.5 ms时,其质量分辨本领可达1.3×105;要求电源精度好于50 ppm,最好达到20 ppm。


Multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MRTOF-MS) has been developed as a new device which has a higher mass resolving power than traditional mass spectrometers in recent years. A new method including two sub-procedures, global search and local refinement, has been developed and applied to design a MRTOF-MS. It consists of two components, parameter configuration and ion motion simulation, and can be used to optimize the geometries of the spectrometer and the potentials applied on the electrodes to achieve the optimum in different conditions. By using this method, a different type of MRTOF mass analyzer has been designed for mass measurements and isobaric separation for Lanzhou Penning Trap (LPT). The geometry of this analyzer and potentials at different electrodes have been optimized, and the relations between resolving power and potentials and the power accuracy requirements have been analyzed and discussed quantitatively. The simulation shows that the optimal length of the drift-tube is about 400 mm; the maximal resolving power of 1.3×105 has been achieved with a total time-of-flight of 6.5 ms under the optimal potentials for an ion species of 40Ar1+; and the inaccuracy of the potentials applied to the mirror electrodes must be less than 50 ppm or preferably 20 ppm.
Ni离子辐照国产ZIRLO合金的辐照性能研究
白若玉, 范平, 夏海鸿, 袁大庆, 孔淑妍, 张乔丽, 马海亮, 左翼, 温阿利, 朱升云
2017, 34(3): 630-635. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.630
摘要:
国产ZIRLO合金是CAP1400重要的燃料包壳管候选材料之一,因此需要在使用前对该材料进行辐照性能考验。研究了国产ZIRLO合金的辐照性能随辐照温度和损伤剂量的变化。辐照实验在中国原子能科学研究院HI-13串列加速器上,采用80 MeV的Ni离子进行,辐照产生的损伤采用透射电子显微镜、能量色散谱和纳米压痕法等方法表征。国产ZIRLO合金在300℃经10 dpa损伤剂量辐照后观察到均匀分布的析出颗粒,同样剂量在700℃辐照析出颗粒数目减少,析出相的主要成分为Nb。辐照后出现硬化现象,辐照损伤剂量越大,硬化程度越高;随着辐照温度升高,辐照硬化呈减小趋势。


The domestic ZIRLO is a promising candidate of cladding materials for CAP1400. It is necessary to test its radiation properties before its use. In this paper, the radiation properties of the domestic ZIRLO have been studied as functions of irradiation temperature and dose respectively. The experiment was performed at the HI-13 tandem accelerator of China Institute of Atomic Energy by using 80 MeV Ni ions at different temperature and different dose. The transmission electron microscopy, electron dispersive spectroscopy and nano-indentation were used to characterize the radiation damage. The experimental results show that the precipitates are uniformly distributed at 10 dpa and 300℃, while at 700℃ the number of precipitates is reduced. Among all the precipitates, Nbisthe dominant element. Hardening phenomenon was also observed after irradiation, the higher the radiation dose, the higher the degree of hardening, and it illustrates a decreasing tendency with the increasing of the irradiation temperature.
连续碳纤维增强碳化硅的辐照效应
李洋, 赵强, 张峥, 欧阳晓平
2017, 34(3): 636-640. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.636
摘要:
连续碳纤维增强碳化硅材料除了具有碳化硅材料固有的低中子活化性能,低衰变热性能和低氚渗透性能等优点以外,还具有密度低、线性膨胀系数小、高比强度、高比模量、耐高温、抗氧化、抗蠕变、抗热震、耐化学腐蚀、耐盐雾、优良的电磁波吸收特性等一系列优异性能,是各类核工程重要的潜在候选材料。在核聚变工程应用领域,连续碳纤维增强碳化硅材料作为第一壁材料不可避免地会受到各种辐射粒子的影响。研究清楚这些辐射粒子对它的辐照效应对其在核工程领域的安全使用至关重要。采用蒙特卡罗方法与分子动力学方法进行模拟计算,研究了氕、氘、氚和氦四种粒子对连续碳纤维增强碳化硅的辐照效应。SRIM和LAMMPS计算结果表明:当入射原子能量为100 eV,连续碳纤维增强碳化硅中碳的浓度在80%~85%时,氕、氘、氚和氦原子的溅射率存在最小值;入射粒子的种类对溅射率的影响显著,氦原子的溅射率大于氘原子和氚原子,而氘原子和氚原子的溅射率相差不大但均显著大于氕原子;溅射率随入射能量的增加先迅速增加后逐渐减小,氕、氘、氚和氦原子入射能量分别在200,400,600和800 eV时存在溅射率最大值;当氦原子入射能量为100 eV时,溅射率随入射角度的增加而逐渐减少。这些结果对连续碳纤维增强碳化硅材料在核工程上的应用具有一定的参考意义。


Continuous carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide material has the low neutron activation, low decay heat performance and tritium permeability, which are inherent performance of silicon carbide materials. It also has other advantages such as low density, small linear expansion coefficient, specific strength and specific modulus, high temperature resistance, oxidation resistance, creep resistance, thermal shock, resistance to chemical corrosion, salt fog resistance, excellent electromagnetic wave absorption properties, etc. It is an important potential candidate material in various field of nuclear engineering. In the field of nuclear fusion engineering applications, continuous carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide as the first wall material will inevitably be bombarded by a variety of radiation particles. The radiation effect is critical to its safe use in nuclear engineering. The Monte Carlo method and the molecular dynamics method were used to study the radiation effect of protium, deuterium, tritium and helium on continuous carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide. The SRIM and LAMMPS simulation results show that when the incident energy is 100 eV and the concentration of carbon in the continuous carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide is about 80% ~ 85%, the sputtering yield of protium, deuterium, tritium and helium atoms have the minimum values. The kind of incident particle has a significant effect on the sputtering yield. The sputtering yield of helium atoms is larger than that of tritium atoms and deuterium atoms. There is not much difference between the sputtering yield of deuterium atoms and tritium atoms, and both the sputtering yield of deuterium atoms and tritium atoms are larger than that of protium atoms. The sputtering yield initially increases rapidly with the increase of the incident energy and then decreases gradually. The incident energy of the protium, deuterium, tritium and helium atoms has the maximum value of the sputtering yield at 200, 400, 600 and 800 eV, respectively. When the incident energy of helium atoms is 100 eV, the sputtering yield decreases while the increase of the incident angle. These results can provide a certain reference for the application of continuous carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide materials in nuclear engineering.
γ辐照后硼硅酸盐玻璃的吸收光谱研究
孙梦利, 刘枫飞, 杜鑫, 袁伟, 律鹏, 赵彦, 张冰焘, 张晓阳, 陈亮, 王铁山, 彭海波
2017, 34(3): 641-645. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.641
摘要:
玻璃固化体是用来固化放射性废物的硅酸盐。作为放射性废物处理的第一道工程屏障,它的耐辐照性能尤其引人注目。本工作使用硼硅酸盐玻璃模拟玻璃固化体材料,用不同剂量的γ射线辐照硼硅酸盐玻璃模拟天然放射性对固化体的辐照损伤。通过测量和分析辐照后硼硅酸盐玻璃的吸收光谱,证实了辐照后在玻璃中产生了E'缺陷,非桥氧空位色心、过氧自由基以及过桥氧联接等缺陷。此外,还得出了不同微观结构随吸收剂量的演化关系。对于辐照后产生的缺陷,它们的浓度都随吸收剂量的增加而增大。同时,发现玻璃在辐照后其吸收光谱的带隙随着剂量的增加而逐渐变窄;而当吸收剂量大于等于105 Gy时,玻璃的带隙则达到饱和值。


Vitrification is one kind of silicates which is used for immobilization of high-level waste (HLW). As the first engineered barrier of HLW disposition, its anti-irradiation characteristic is particularly noticeable. Vitrification is replaced by borosilicate glass to investigate radiation effect, and the irradiation damage generated by natural radioactivity in vitrification is simulated by different doses gamma rays on borosilicate glass. By measuring and analyzing the absorption spectrum of irradiated borosilicate glasses, it is confirmed that E'defect, non-bridging oxygen hole center, peroxy dangling bond and bridge oxygen link, etc. are induced in borosilicate glass after irradiation. Furthermore, the relations between the defects and absorbed doses are shown. For the concentrations of these defects induced by irradiation, all of them increase with absorbed dose. Meanwhile, absorption band gap in borosilicate glass after irradiation decreases with absorbed dose and the band gap becomes saturated when absorbed dose is equal to or greater than 105 Gy.
铁冷轧形变以及热处理对形变缺陷的影响
龚毅豪, 靳硕学, 卢二阳, 况鹏, 朱特, 曹兴忠, 王宝义
2017, 34(3): 646-650. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.646
摘要:
采用常用冷轧设备对铁进行冷轧引入形变缺陷。研究形变量和温度对形变缺陷的影响。形变样品中的微观缺陷、物相结构和形貌分别使用正电子湮没技术(PAT)、X射线衍射仪(XRD)和透射电子显微镜(TEM)进行表征分析。对经过673 K热处理的形变样品前后进行XRD测试,结果显示,随着形变量的增加,样品中晶面方向(200)具有择优生长趋势,673 K热处理后,择优趋势更加明显,同时晶粒的尺寸也增大。利用正电子湮没寿命谱和多普勒展宽能谱对样品中形变缺陷的热力学稳定性进行研究,发现形变引入的空位型缺陷约在673 K回复完毕,723 K后位错缺陷开始回复。


The pure iron was cold rolled with the thickness reduction from 0% to 75%. The microstructure defects, crystallographic structure and morphology of deformed specimens were characterized by positron annihilation technique (PAT), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD results show that the intensity of (200) increased with increasing deformation, 673 K heat-treatment promote the preference of (200) and the grain size of (200) was increased. The PAT results show that the vacancy type defect was annihilated at 673 K and the dislocation type defects start to annihilate at 723 K.
硫化温度对ZnS薄膜生长质量的影响
宋力刚, 朱特, 曹兴忠, 张仁刚, 况鹏, 靳硕学, 张鹏, 龚毅豪, 王宝义
2017, 34(3): 651-655. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.651
摘要:
采用热反应法对玻璃衬底上以磁控溅射制备的Zn薄膜进行硫化,制备出ZnS薄膜。薄膜的微观结构、物相结构和表面形貌分别采用正电子湮没技术(PAT)、X射线衍射仪(XRD)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)进行分析和表征。利用慢正电子湮没多普勒展宽对四个不同硫化温度下得到的ZnS薄膜样品中膜层结构缺陷进行研究,测量了薄膜中的空位型微观缺陷的相对浓度,指出445℃硫化样品中正电子注入能量在1.5~4.5 keV后S参数最小,说明该硫化温度下反应生成的ZnS薄膜结构缺陷浓度最小,膜的致密度最高。XRD结果显示薄膜在445℃以上硫化后,呈(111)择优生长趋势。从扫描电镜的结果也可以看出,在445℃硫化后,薄膜的晶粒明显地变得更大、更致密,这是因为ZnS晶胞比Zn晶胞大以及硫化过程中ZnS固相再结晶的缘故。


ZnS thin films have been prepared by sulfurizing zinc thin films deposited on glass substrate by magnetron sputtering for two hours. The microstructure defects, crystallizations and surface morphology of zinc films sulfurized at different temperature were analyzed by PAT (positron annihilation technique), XRD(X-ray diffraction) and SEM (Scanning electron microscopy), respectively. For analyzing the structure defect of four samples with different sulfurization temperature, PAT has been used to obtain the relative concentration of defects. With the positron energy range of 1.5~4.5 keV, the S parameter of ZnS films is minimum. It demonstrates that ZnS films produced at 445℃ have the minimum structural defect concentration and the highest density. XRD results show that films are blende structure with the preference of (111) orientation above 445℃. And from the result of SEM, because of ZnS films recrystallization, the crystal grains obviously become large and dense at 445℃.
弹性反冲探测分析技术在材料氦行为研究中的应用
高杰, 王春杰, 韩志斌, 李燕, 施立群, 雷前涛, 邓琪, 黄鹤飞
2017, 34(3): 656-660. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.656
摘要:
弹性反冲探测分析技术(ERDA)对轻元素的测定具有灵敏度高、包含深度信息的优势,因此在材料氦行为研究中发挥着重要作用。镍基哈氏N合金被认为是未来熔盐堆的结构材料,氦脆是其服役性能下降的主要因素之一。利用掠入射模式的ERDA,解析了哈氏N合金样品中的氦原子浓度及其分布,但仅局限于0~175 nm深度范围内。结果表明:在800℃的退火条件下,距离样品辐照表面~33 nm深度区域内,出现了氦原子逃逸现象。更高温度的退火(1 050℃)可加剧氦原子的逃逸,但样品中仍有氦原子滞留。另外,采用透射式的ERDA,极大地扩大了对氦原子分析的深度范围,得到了纯镍薄膜在0~950 nm深度区域内的氦原子浓度分布。这表明将块体材料制备成薄膜样品,利用透射模式的ERDA,将可以得到氦原子在更大范围内的扩散、逃逸行为。


Since the elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) technique has the advantages of high sensitivity and deep information in analyzing the light elements, it plays an important role in the study of helium behavior in materials. Helium embrittlement is one of the main reasons for the degradation of the Hastelloy N alloy, which has been considered as the promising candidate structural material for the further molten salt reactor. In this work, the profile of helium concentrationin sample of Hastelloy N alloy was analyzed by ERDA experiments applying grazing-incidence geometry. However, the result was limited within the depth range of 0~175 nm, and it shown that helium atoms escaped in the range from the irradiated surface of the sample to the depth of ~33 nm when annealing the sample at 800℃ The annealing at higher temperature (1 050℃) increased the escape of helium atoms, but a small fraction of helium atoms still trapped in the sample. In addition, the profile of helium concentration was obtained in the helium-irradiated pure nickel film in the depth range of 0~950 nm, using the ERDA experiments in transmission geometry. This indicates that the diffusion behavior of helium atoms in bulk samples can be completely obtained using the ERDA experiments in tranmission geometry if the bulk material can be prepared into a thin film sample.
过渡金属锆铁对钨中氢氦行为的影响
张峥, 赵强, 李洋, 张浩, 符精品, 欧阳晓平
2017, 34(3): 661-666. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.661
摘要:
钨被广泛地认为是最具潜力的面向等离子体材料。钨在聚变堆中的服役过程中,会受到强束低能的氢氦粒子流的影响,其结果是钨的性能下降。本工作通过第一性原理计算的方法研究了过渡金属锆铁对钨中氢氦行为的影响。研究结果表明,锆或铁的掺入会使钨的机械强度降低,延展性增加;锆铁的掺入不会改变氢氦在钨中的最佳占位,但是它们对氢氦在钨中的稳定性有一定影响;锆和铁对钨中氢氦的捕获作用存在一个最佳作用半径;铁原子在短距离(< 3.626 Å)时对氦有捕获作用,在长距离(> 3.626 Å)时存在排斥作用,而锆对钨中氢氦均具有捕获作用;钨中氢表现为亲电子的性质,而氦表现出疏电子的特性。总体上讲,锆对钨中氢氦的捕获作用要强于铁对钨中氢氦的捕获作用。本研究工作能够为钨基面向等离子体材料制备提供理论指导。


Tungsten was widely considered as a highly promising candidate of plasma facing material, while the presence of hydrogen and helium has an adverse effect on the performance of the tungsten. The effects of transition metals (zirconium, iron) on the behavior of hydrogen and helium in tungsten were investigated by using the first-principles calculation method. The results show that doping of zirconium and iron decreases the mechanical strength of tungsten a little, but they increase the ductility of tungsten; zirconium and iron can't change the best occupied site of hydrogen and helium in tungsten, but they have some effect on the stability of the point defects formed by hydrogen and helium in tungsten; there is the best attraction radius between the transition metals (zirconium, iron) and hydrogen or helium in tungsten; there is an attractive interaction between iron and helium in a short distance (<3.626 Å), but a repulsion interaction in a long distance (>3.626 Å). An attractive interaction exists between zirconium and helium or hydrogen in tungsten whatever the distance is; the hydrogen that in tungsten has an electrophilic nature, while the helium has opposite features. The attraction interaction between zirconium and hydrogen or helium in tungsten is stronger than that of iron. Our works in this paper might provide a theory guide for the selection and preparation of the tungsten based alloy that is used as the plasma facing materials.
锆掺杂二氧化铀中氧缺陷扩散机制的密度泛函计算研究
张瑞谦, 肖红星, 王欢, 张仲, 邹宇, 展长勇, 伍建春
2017, 34(3): 667-671. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.667
摘要:
应用基于量子力学的密度泛函计算和过渡态搜寻的CI-NEB方法,研究了锆掺杂前后二氧化铀晶格中氧空位和氧间隙本征缺陷的扩散机理,计算了扩散路径和扩散能垒。计算结果表明,锆掺杂使得氧空位缺陷<100>方向的扩散能垒降低了0.40 eV,氧间隙交换机制的扩散能垒降低了0.07 eV。锆掺杂后,氧空位远低于氧间隙缺陷的扩散能垒。最后分析了扩散过程中氧原子和金属原子之间的键长,说明锆掺杂导致点缺陷扩散能垒降低与晶格畸变密切相关。


Oxygen vacancy and interstitial diffusion mechanisms in uranium dioxide doped with zirconium are investigated by the density functional theory calculations. The migration pathways and barriers are identified using the climbing-image nudge elastic band (CI-NEB) method. It is found that the vacancy migration barrier along the <100> direction decreases by about 0.40 eV, while the indirect interstitial migration barrier decreases by about 0.07 eV in the zirconium doped uranium dioxide. The oxygen vacancy migration barrier is far lower than the oxygen interstitial migration barrier in the uranium dioxide doped with zirconium. Based on the analysis of bond length of local structures during the migration of oxygen atoms, it is concluded that the lattice distortion may be responsible for the reduction of oxygen migration barrier.
小型模块化熔盐堆钍利用方案
李晓晓, 伍建辉, 余呈刚, 邹春燕, 蔡翔舟, 陈金根
2017, 34(3): 672-676. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.672
摘要:
钍基熔盐堆(Thorium Molten Salt Reactor,TMSR)核能系统先导专项的研究目标是研发第四代裂变反应堆核能系统(即钍基熔盐堆)。为充分利用液态燃料熔盐堆的在线添料与在线燃料处理的优势,同时考虑熔盐堆的快速部署,TMSR先导专项部署了小型模块化熔盐堆。考虑燃料处理技术现状及其可能的发展方向,小型模块化熔盐堆钍利用方案采用"三步走"战略。第一阶段采用在线加料与离线处理,实现钍的成规模利用;第二阶段采用在线加料和在线处理(U)与离线处理(MA)的结合,实现钍的高效利用;第三阶段采用在线加料及在线处理全部重金属,实现钍的自持增殖利用。随着"三步走"战略的逐步实施,钍铀燃料循环模式及后处理性能稳步提高,重金属利用率得到明显改善,同时有效降低了卸料毒性。考虑燃料许可容易度和建堆时间,首先为钍利用方案第一阶段布置了三种可能的启堆燃料,分别为低富集铀、低富集铀加钍和233U加钍。计算结果显示:以低富集铀启堆时,燃料循环性能与水堆相当;以233U启堆时,燃料利用率明显高于水堆,且其放射性毒性比水堆低约2个数量级。


The missions of the Thorium Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) Nuclear Energy System are to research and develop the thorium based molten salt reactors (MSR) belonging to the fourth generation of nuclear fission reactor system. A Small modular Molten Salt Reactor (SmMSR) is deployed to make full use of the advantages of online refueling and online reprocessing and to consider the rapid deployment of MSR. An innovative "three-stage" strategy of thorium utilization based on SmMSR is proposed to take the current condition of fuel reprocessing and its future evolution. The first stage can realize the thorium utilization at a large scale with online refueling and off-line processing. The second stage can obtain efficient thorium utilization with online refueling, online processing of uranium and off-line processing of minor actinides (MAs). The third stage is implemented with self-sustaining or breeding mode with online refueling and online processing of all heavy metals. Along with the development of three stages, the utilization of heavy metals will be obviously improved and the radio-toxicity will be significantly reduced. A SmMSR is designed to achieve the goals of the first stage of thorium utilization. And three kinds of nuclear fuel cycles with different startup fuel types (i.e., low enriched uranium (LEU), thorium mixed with LEU (LEU+Th) and thorium mixed with 233U (233U+Th)) are implemented. The results show that the performance for fuel cycle containing LEU is comparable to the pressurized-water reactor (PWR). Meanwhile, the nuclear utilization for that containing 233U is much higher than PWR, and the radio-toxicity for which is lower by ~2 magnitudes than that for PWR.
基于ICEM-CFD的核噪声分析用有限元程序研究
袁宝新, 杨万奎, 曾和荣
2017, 34(3): 677-681. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.677
摘要:
基于非结构网格的有限元方法具有很好的几何适应性,目前已用于求解反应堆物理问题,但当前的有限元程序基于手工描述的几何建模和网格划分非常繁复,很大程度上制约了该方法在反应堆物理数值计算中的应用。利用商业CAD前处置软件ICEM-CFD对三维堆芯几何做四面体或六面体网格剖分,对二维堆芯几何做三角形或四边形网格剖分,并开发了基于有限元方法的核噪声分析用中子学计算主程序。通过基准例题对程序进行了通量、伴随通量、keff/keff*等稳态参数计算能力测试,测试表明该程序稳态参数计算结果是可信的。最后,对国际原子能机构(IAEA)发布的三维压水堆基准例题进行了中子噪声频谱计算,给出了给定频点下的噪声分布。


The finite element method based on unstructured mesh has good geometry adaptability. It has been used to solve reactor physics problems, manual description of geometric modeling and meshing makes the current finite element code very complicated. It greatly restricts the application of this method in the numerical calculation of reactor physics. Using the CAD pre-processing software ICEM-CFD, tetrahedral or hexahedral mesh subdivision of 3D core geometry is performed, triangular or quadrilateral mesh subdivision of 2D core geometry is performed, the main code of neutron calculation for nuclear noise analysis based on finite element method is developed. The steady state parameters such as flux, adjoint flux and keff/keff* are calculated and tested through benchmark problem, the test results show that the calculation results of the steady state parameters of this code are credible. Finally, the neutron noise spectrum is calculated for the 3D PWR benchmark problem published by IAEA, and the noise distribution under given frequency is given.
钍基熔盐堆用238群中子-48群光子耦合多群常数库的屏蔽基准验证
赵秋娟, 吴海成, 吴小飞, 刘萍, 葛智刚
2017, 34(3): 682-690. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.682
摘要:
采用OKTAVIAN脉冲球实验对钍基熔盐堆用AMPX主库格式238群中子-48群光子耦合多群常数库进行了屏蔽基准验证,重点检验了该库中的F,Li,Be,C、Al,Si,Cr,Ni,Zr,Co,Cu,Mn,Mo,Nb,Ti,W,Pb同位素/元素的数据。采用SCALE 5.1程序系统中的XSDRN-PM程序进行一维屏蔽问题计算,将计算结果与实验测量数据及MCNP程序计算结果进行比较,发现中子泄漏谱的符合程度较好,而光子泄漏谱检验中发现大多数核素都出现了不同程度的高估。通过对GENDF格式到AMPX格式的转换程序MILER-4进行修正,解决了这一问题。通过对多群常数库的屏蔽基准验证,进一步证明了该库的可靠性。


OKTAVIAN pulsed sphere experiment was used for Shielding Benchmarks of the AMPX formatted multi-group (238n-48γ) coupled neutron-gamma cross-section library for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor, of which the following isotopes/elements were checked-F, Li, Be, C, Al, Si, Cr, Ni, Zr, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ti, W. One dimension shielding problem was calculated using XSDRN-PM program of SCALE 5.1 code system and results were compared with experiment results and MCNP calculated results, which shows that neutron leakage spectra agree well. Calculated results of photon leakage spectra of most facilities compared with MCNP results and experiment data are over-rated. MILER-4 code which is used for converting GENDF files produced by NJOY to the AMPX master library format is revised to solve this problem. The shielding benchmark verifications confirm the reliability of this new library.
新一代堆芯多群常数库制作系统的研制
温丽丽, 吴海成, 刘萍, 吴小飞, 张崇
2017, 34(3): 691-698. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.691
摘要:
随着新一代组件计算程序计算精度要求的不断提高,组件计算程序对配套多群常数库提出了更高的要求,例如:要求能群结构更加精细、共振参数更加多样、燃耗数据更加精确等。为满足新一代组件计算程序的这一系列需求研发了一套制作多群常数库的系统NPLC-3。NPLC-3系统以NJOY程序为中心包含了输入参数库、驱动程序、主库制作程序、并群、并库、删除、添加、进制转换、数据自动检验等功能模块,针对各功能模块采用不同方法初步验证了系统的正确性。相对传统的数据制作方法,NPLC-3系统在燃耗链设计、燃耗数据计算以及共振数据制作等方面增加新的特性,而且系统采用独立的I/O接口、全自动读取参数库并生成输入卡,相对过去制作数据库的手段有了很大的改进。


With the unceasing enhancement of the calculation accuracy requirement on the new generation of lattice code, higher requirements on multi-group constants library were put forward. For example, fine energy group structures are required, more types of data are need for the resonance processing, more accuracy burn-up data is required. To meet this series of demand, a multi-group constants production system NPLC-3 was developed. The NPLC-3 system which mainly based on the NJOY program contains an input parameter database and a series of functional codes such as driver code, main library production code, energy group collapsing code, work library production code and so on. Recently, different methods were adopted to validate these codes respectively according to their functions. Compared to the traditional methods in multi-group constants production, NPLC-3 system adopts several new methods in the design of burn up chain, calculation of burn up data and resonance parameters. What's more, the NPLC-3 system has an independent I/O interface, and can fully automatic generate input cards from the input parameters database. Relative to the past means of production library, NPLC-3 system has great improvement.