2006年 第23卷 第2期
目前国际上代表性的磁约束聚变反应堆设计包括美国的ARIES系列和APEX系列、欧洲的PPCS系列、日本的SSTR系列、中国的FDS系列设计，以及国际合作的国际热核聚变实验堆等。这些设计研究涉及到聚变能科学技术发展的各个方面，包括聚变实验堆、商用示范堆和商用动力电站等的设计研究、相关物理和技术发展以及相关的能源技术与经济策略研究等。简要介绍了上述设计研究领域的现状和发展趋势。The uhimate goal of the fusion program is to develop large scale power plants for the production of electricity. At present, there are many representative designs of magnetic confinement fusion reactors in the world,e.g. ARIES and APEX in USA, PPCS in EU, SSTR in Japan, FDS in China, and International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor （ITER）. These studies cover many aspects on fusion experimental reactors, DEMO reactors, and commercial fusion power plants, including plasma physics, blanket technologies, material behavior, and technologies required to construct and operate such complex plants. The study status and development strategy in various countries are summarized and reviewed.
中国国际热核聚变实验堆（ITER）氦冷固态氚增殖剂实验包层模块（CHITER HC-SB TBM）设计已经完成。给出了HC-SBTBM的总体设计、性能分析和相关辅助系统的设计。HC-SBTBM氚增殖区的设计采用BOT概念，锂陶瓷做氚增殖剂，氦气做冷却剂和载氚介质，铁素体马氏体钢做结构材料，铍做中子倍增材料。设计和分析结果表明，所提出的设计具有高氚增殖率、结构简单和工程上可行的特点。 Preliminary design and analysis for China helium-cooled solid breeder （CH HC-SB） test blanket module （TBM） for testing in ITER（ International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor） device have been carried out recently. In this paper, the design description, the performance analysis and the related ancillary systems for CH TBM are introduced. The key features of the design are based upon the breederoutside-tube （BOT） concept, on the use of solid breeder ceramic material, of helium as coolant and tritium purge gas, of ferrite-martensite steel as structural material, and of beryllium as neutron multiplier. Results show that the proposed TBM concept has the advantages of higher tritium breeding ratio （TBR）, simple structure design and engineering feasibility.
分析了以铀为燃料的核电系统的弊端、钍燃料反应堆的理论技术依据和世界范围内钍燃料反应堆的研究状况。提出在我国开发利用钍资源，建立铀．钍混合燃料反应堆具有的独特优势，建议应加大钍资源开发人力物力投入，改变我国核电利用水平落后和钍资源流失之现状。Nuclear energy is a preferred option for electric power generation. The disadvantages of the current uranium-dioxide （UO2 ） fuel in nuclear power were presented and the reactor using the mixed thorium dioxide and uranium dioxide fuel （ ThO2-UO2 ） in the near future was foretold. A proposal to strengthen the research cooperation on the use of the thorium mineral resources in china was put forward.
对加速器驱动快／热耦合次临界系统进行了概念设计研究。在该系统中，内区的快包层和外区的热包层是相互独立的，快、热包层之间为空腔和B4C包层以实现单向耦合。快包层装以合金（MA＋Pu）Zr为燃料，热包层初始循环装以氧化物（Th＋Pu）O2为燃料，平衡循环装以（Th＋^233 U＋Pu）O2为燃料。^99Tc，^129I和^135Cs分别以单质、NaI和CsCl的形式装入热包层。该系统具有较高的能量放大倍数、嬗变效率和燃料转换比：系统能量放大系数不低于320；锕系元素（MA）和裂变产物（FP）的嬗变支持比分别为1个和2个压水堆；热包层的燃料转换比为0．715。 Accelerator driven coupled fast/thermal subcritical system is conceptually designed. In the system, the inner/fast blanket and the outer/thermal blanket are separated each other by large vacuum and B4C coating for on edirection coupling. The metal type fuel （MA ＋ Pu）Zr is loaded into the fast blanket. The oxide type fuels （Th ＋ Pu） O2 and （Th ＋ ^233U ＋ Pu）O2 are loaded into the thermal blanket during the initial cycle and the equilibrium cycle, respectively. ^99Tc, ^129I and ^135Cs are loaded respectively in the form of pure technetium metal, sodium iodide and cesium chlorine into the thermal blanket. The system has good transmutation efficiency, high energy amplification factor and good fuel conversion ability： the energy amplification factor is above 320; the transmutation support ratios of MA and FP are about 1.0 and 2.0 PWRs respectively; the fuel conversion ratio in the thermal blanket is about 0. 715.
MCNP程序由于其几何模拟和核数据上的优越性，现在在反应堆的研究分析中已经得到较多应用。通过基准题的计算，定量地说明MCNP通过其自带的常温（294K）下的核素截面数据库不能够对反应堆进行非常准确的计算（由于反应堆内各种材料／位置的温度不同），而且，它也不能够计算反应堆中与温度相关的量，如反应性温度系数。选用了一个带有不同温度下核素截面数据的MCNP输入格式的数据库，使用MCNP-4C对基准题进行了计算，发现计算结果与基准值符合得非常好。这说明通过使用不同温度下的核素截面数据库，MCNP可以准确计算温度系数和增殖系数等，从而说明在反应堆设计计算中制作不同温度下的核素截面库的必要性。Due to the advantage of geometry simulation and nuclear data, the code MCNP is now widely used in the reactor analysis. Based on our calculation of the fuel temperature reactivity coefficient benchmark, it is quantificationally proved that MCNP with its own cross section library can＇ t be used to simulate the reactor accurately and to calculate the temperature reactivity coefficient. Furthermore, we use MCNP- 4C with a database that contains temperature dependent nuclear cross sections to calculate the benchmark. The results are well agreement with benchmark results. This means that, with the temperature dependent nuclear cross sections library, MCNP can calculate the temperature reactivity coefficient and reactor multiplication factor accurately. So the temperature dependent nuclear cross section library should be processed to meet the requirement of reactor calculation.
针对反应堆高阶κ-本征方程数值计算问题，提出了提高计算效率和计算精度的改进方法，并以一维问题为例，对该方法进行了验证。The solution methods for the higher order oped yet in the nuclear reactor engineering. Based on harmonics and higher order eigenvalues are not well develthe analysis of the convergence process of power iteration, a new approach for setting the starting values of higher order harmonic flux has been proposed. The results of numerical tests demonstrate that the proposed method could effectively improve the efficiency of calculations of higher order harmonics. In addition, a new type of criterion that judges the convergence of higher order harmonics dynamically has been proposed, it has been verified that the new convergence criterion could effectively prevent the buildup of numerical errors introduced in the solution of lower order harmonics in the solution of higher order harmonics.
采用三维中子学程序MCNP及FENDL2．0数据库，对具有3×3子模块结构的中国氦冷固体增殖剂（HCSB）的氚增殖包层模块（TBM）进行了三维中子学计算。计算条件是：壁负载因子是0．78MW／m^2、运行因子是22％。计算得到的TBM氚增殖比（TBR）是 0.907、总氚产生率是0．0175g／d、最大功率密度9．27MW／m^2及总功率沉积0．422MW／m^3。By using three-dimension MCNP code and FENDL2.0 data library, the neutronics calculation for a HCSB （Helium Cooling Solid Breeder） TBM （Test Blanket Module） with 3 × 3 sub-modules has been performed. Under neutron wall loading of 0.78 MW/m^2 and duty factor of 22%, it is given for the tritium breeding ratio （TBR） of 0. 907, total tritium generation rate of 0.0175 g/d, peak power density of 9.27 MW/m^3 and total power deposiit of 0.422MW/m^3.
开发了低能α粒子与中子耦合输运程序，可以计算低能α粒子在各种介质中的输运、含氧介质中的（α，n）中子产额，跟踪次级中子。采用蒙特卡罗方法中带权重跟踪的技巧，通过大量小权重事件的模拟成功解决了低能（α，n）反应中子产额太低、无法直接模拟的困难。α粒子的射程与阻止本领用SRIM程序计算，（α，n）截面取自最新的JENDL带电粒子库，次级中子跟踪使用MCNP程序。A new code package of alpha-neutron coupled transportation is developed. It can be used to simulate the transportation of alpha particle in media, to compute the neutron yield in media contains oxygen and to track the history of the secondary neutrons. The secondary neutrons are simulated efficiently by tracking lots of neutrons with small weight, which is determined by the alpha-neutron yield. The stopping power and range of alpha particle in media are given by SRIM code, the alpha-neutron cross section is from charged particle library in JENDL, and the neutrons are treated by MCNP code.
用^93Nb（n，2n）^92mNb和^90Zr（n，2n）^89m＋gZr截面比法测定中子能量，以^93Nb（n，2n）^92mNb反应截面作中子注量标准，用活化法测量了13．5-14．6MeV中子引起的^89Y（n，2n）^88Y的反应截面值。由（13．5±0．3），（14.1±0．2），（14.6±0．3）MeV中子引起的^89Y（n，2n）^88Y反应截面值分别为（759±42），（835±42）和（958±53）mb。Cross section for （n, 2n） reaction on Yttrium have been measured at energy of 14 MeV neutrons from H（d, n）He by using activation technique. The ^93Nb（n, 2n）^92mNb reaction was used to monitor the neutron fluence, HPGe detector was used to detect the γ-rays. The cross section of ^89Y （n, 2n）^88Y reaction are 759 ± 42, 835 ±42, 958 ±53 mb for neutron energy 13.5 ±0.3, 14.1±0.2, 14.6 ±0.3 MeV, respectively.
MCAM（MCNP Automatic Modeling system）是MCNP自动建模与可视化软件，重点介绍MCAM中MCNP中子学模型可视化的原理、技术及实现。通过分析MCNP中子学模型文本描述和构造立体几何表示法的关系，指出从构造立体几何表示法到CAD模型的转换是MCNP中子学模型可视化的关键所在。MCAM is a software used for MCNP automatic modeling and visualization. This article presents the principle, approach and the implementation of MCNP neutronics model visualization. Analysis on the relationship between the text description of MCNP neutronics model and the CSG shows that the conversion from CSG to CAD model is the key issue of the visualization.
在充分调研和分析SN方法粒子输运计算程序自动建模方法的基础上，对建模过程中的模型文件格式识别、属性编辑、空腔处理及自动划分离散网格等关键技术问题进行了研究，并提出了合理可行的解决方法。通过对SNAM程序建模部分功能测试，验证了这些方法的正确性和有效性。This paper presents two approaches to enhance the geometry modeling ability of SN particle transport simulation codes and focus on the key issues that lie in the processing from CAD model to SN code geometry model, e.g. CAD file format support, void modeling, mesh generation and model-editing. SNAM （SN Automatic Modeling system） has been developed as an interface code between commercial CAD software and SN particle transport simmulation codes. The testing results have shown that the algorithm and implementation used in SNAM are efficient and capable of all the necessary processing from CAD model to SN geometry model.
国际热核试验堆（ITER）核分析的主要计算工具是三维蒙特卡罗输运程序MCNP。MCAM（MCNP Auto-Modeling system）作为MCNP自动建模与可视化软件，其主要功能是CAD模型与MCNP计算模型之间的数据交互。一方面MCAM可将通用格式的CAD模型转换成MCNP计算模型，另一方面作为一个可视化工具，它可以以CAD模型的方式显示MCNP计算模型中几何及材料等相关信息。主要介绍利用MCAM对ITER三维MCNP模型的改进，主要包括：包层模块的重建和内包层几何细化；模型环向角度从20°到40°的扩展。In order to conduct nuclear analyses on neutronics issues for ITER （International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor）, a standard three-dimensional model of the ITER reactor is being developed. The complex nuclear
analyses are conducted by MCNP/4C in three dimensions. MCAM （MCNP Auto-Modeling system） , as an implementation of the interface code between modern CAD system and MCNP, is a modeling and visualization tool which can convert a CAD model to neutronics model for MCNP and vice versa. This paper presents the application of MCAM to modify ITER 3-D neutronics model, which include blanket segmentation update, incorporation of fine structures of inboard blanket and the model extension from 20° to 40° in toroidal direction
使用自主开发的一维输运／燃耗／可视化计算程序系统VisualBUS1．0和HENDL1．1／MG数据库，对^233U，^235U和^239Pu的热溶液临界球基准实验和^237Np，^241Am和^244Cm的金属快裂变临界球问题进行校核。和国际上广泛使用的各种程序和数据库的模拟计算结果以及相关实验结果进行综合对比和分析，初步验证了HENDL1．1／MG中裂变核素核数据的可靠性和应用性，同时也进一步证明了VisualBUS1.0程序的正确性。The evaluated critical safety benchmark experiments including some major elements of fission materials, such as ^233U, ^235U, ^239pu and ^237Np, ^241Am, ^244Cm, were simulated using the home-developed one-dimensional
trasportation/burnup/optimization code system VisualBUS1.0 and HENDL1.1/MG, a multi-group working library of fusion-fission Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, by FDS team. By the comparison with the measured resuits and the calculated values given in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments, HENDL1.1/MG data library and VisualBUS1.0 code are validated and qualified to be reliable.
加速器技术的快速发展以及科学技术研究和应用的不断需求，使得高流强和高品质成为新一代加速器装置的最重要的指标。目前大型科学实验装置如重离子束驱动的惯性约束聚变装置、对撞机、中微子及介子工厂、散裂中子源等都需要强流加速器。详细介绍了强流加速器中涉及的材料问题以及强流加速器在聚变堆材料研究中的作用和前景。With the increasing development of accelerator technology and the growing requirements from scientific and technical researches as well as applications, high intensity and high performance become the most important characters of the new accelerator facilities. Currently, many large-scale scientific experimental facilities such as the heavy-ion driven inertial confined fusion facility, the collider, the neutrino and muon factories, the spallation neutron source and so on all need the high intensity accelerators. In this paper, the material issues relevant to the high intensity accelerators and the applications of high intensity accelerators are introduced.
对中国低活化马氏体钢——CLAM钢的冲击和拉伸性能进行了测试。结果表明：CLAM钢的塑。脆转变温度在-100℃左右，低于国际上其它几种典型的低活化马氏体钢；在室温和600℃时抗拉强度分别为668和334MPa，类似于EUROFER97的性能。约8μm的晶粒尺寸是CLAM钢具有较好冲击和拉伸性能的主要原因之一。The impact and tensile tests were carried out on the China Low Activation Martensitic steels （CLAM）. The results show： the Ductile-Brittle Transition Temperature （DBTY） is about - 100 ℃, which is lower than those of some other RAFMs; The ultimate strength are 668 MPa at room temperature and 334 MPa at 600℃, which are comparable to those of EUROFER97. The finer grain size of about 8 μm was considered as one of reasons for the superior mechanical properties of CLAM.
简要介绍了载能粒子辐射损伤对反应堆结构材料性能的影响，阐述了载能粒子束特别是高能离子束开展模拟研究的优势，并举例说明了国内利用高能重离子模拟研究反应堆结构材料辐射效应取得的进展。实验结果和理论分析表明，载能离子特别是高能离子辐照非常适合用于模拟研究反应堆结构材料中由粒子辐射引起的材料微观结构和宏观性能变化，是模拟研究反应堆结构材料辐射效应的非常有效的手段。 Radiation damage in structural materials of fission/fusion reactors is mainly attributed to the evolution of intensive atom displacement damage induced by energetic particles （ n, α and/or fission fragments） and highrate helium doping by direct α particle bombardments and/or （n, α） reactions. It can cause severe degradation of reactor structural materials such as surface blistering, bulk void swelling, deformation, fatigue, embrittlement, stress erosion corrosion and so on that will significantly affect the operation safety of reactors. However, up to now, behavior of structural materials at the end of their service can hardly be fully tested in a real reactor. In the present paper, damage process in reactor structural materials is briefly introduced, then the advantages of energetic ion implantation/irradiation especially high-energy heavy ion irradiation are discussed, and several typical examples on simulation of radiation effects in reactor candidate structural materials using high-energy heavy ion irradiations are introduced. Experimental results and theoretical analysis suggested that irradiation with energetic particles especially high-energy heavy ions is a very useful technique for simulating the evolution of microstructures and macro-properties of reactor structural materials.
研究了中子辐照后铝的微观结构和力学性能的变化。发现中子辐照使铝的硬度有了一定的提高，同时在铝的内部产生了大量细小的位错环。The change of microstructure and mechanical property in neutron irradiated aluminum was studied. It is found that neutron irradiation increased the hardness of the aluminum and caused the formation of many small dislocation loops in the aluminum.
采用质子辐照模拟方法和正电子湮没寿命测量方法研究了质子辐照在国产改进型316L不锈钢中产生的氢气泡及其随辐照质子注量的演化过程。5×10^12，5×10^13，5×10^14／cm^2质子辐照的实验结果表明，辐照在不锈钢中产生氢气泡的尺度随辐照质子注量增加而增大，在质子注量为5×10^14／cm^2时氢气泡尺寸达到0．62nm，气泡的浓度随质子注量增加而减小。The bubble production and evolution in the home-made modified 316L stainless steel have been investigated by the proton irradiation simulation technique and the positron annihilation lifetime measurement. The experimental results of 5 × 10^12, 5 × 10^13 and 5 × 10^14/cm^2 proton irradiations show that the produced bubble size increases, while the bubble concentration decreases, with the increasing of the irradiation proton flueence. At the proton irradiation fluence of 5 × 10^14/cm^2 the bubble size reaches 0.62 nm.
综述了有关核聚变反应堆材料的辐照损伤问题的研究，主要包括国产316L奥氏体不锈钢中氦的扩散与氦泡形核生长的研究、316L及低活化FeCrMn合金的高能Ar离子辐照缺陷与空洞肿胀的研究、近期开展的低活化马氏体钢和氧化物颗粒弥散强化合金的高能Ne离子辐照损伤和效应的研究成果。This paper gives a review of our recent studies on the irradiation damage induced by energetic inert-gasions in metallic materials candidate to fusion reactors. The work includes the study of helium diffusion and helium bubble formation in 316L stainless steels, the study of void formation and swelling in the low-activation Fe-Cr-Mn alloy irradiated with high-energy Ar ions, the study of irradiation damage in some low-activation Fe-based steels and ODS alloys by high-energy Ne ions.
介绍了中国科学院等离子体物理研究所与德国Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe合作开展的国际聚变材料辐照装置（IFMIF）屏蔽中子学方面的相关设计研究工作。重点介绍了新开发的三维耦合屏最计算方法，包括其基本原理和程序系统等，以及基于该方法的IFMIF的三维屏蔽计算典型结果与分析。The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Materials Irradiation Facility （IFMIF） is a joint project within the framework of the Fusion Materials Implementing Agreement of the International Energy Agency （IEA）. Shielding is one of the key issues of the IFMIF engineering design. Due to the complex geometry and large size of the shields, it is difficult to make accurate shielding design using the conventional computational tools. To handle this problem, a coupled 3-D computational scheme has been developed under the cooperation of the Institute of Plasma Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Germany. This paper presents the newly-developed 3-D coupled computational scheme and its application to the IFMIF shielding design.
简要介绍了快重离子在固体材料中强电子激发效应的基本特点、研究现状和在HIRFL上获得的部分实验结果，并对今后的研究工作进行了展望。In this paper the outline of intense electronic excitation effects in solid materials induced by swift heavy ions and international research status were briefly reviewed. Few examples of experimental results obtained on HIRFL were presented. And also the developing tendency in the field was looked into the future.
采用低能电子束辐射系统地研究了操作氚系统用密封材料（聚四氟乙烯）的辐射效应。利用扫描电镜和X光电子能谱仪分析了材料的表观形貌和表面元素的变化，用X射线粉末衍射仪和热分析仪分析了辐照前后材料的结晶度改变和热稳定性程度，并利用气相色谱仪和质谱仪测定了辐射降解气体的成分和生成量随吸收剂量的变化规律。采用电子自旋共振谱仪研究了材料在辐照过程中产生的中间体（自由基），利用正电子湮没寿命谱仪分析了材料中的自由体积孔洞及浓度。结果表明，辐照前聚四氟氟乙烯样品的表面是规则的带状晶形结构，经1×10^5Gy辐照后样品的晶状结构遭到了明显的破坏，向非晶态转变显著。辐照后样品的熔点和热分解温度均呈下降趋势，表明样品的热稳定性降低。聚。四氟乙烯材料在氧气气氛中发生的辐射降解最为严重，其次是真空，而在氘气气氛中辐射降解最少。材料的辐射降解主要发生在主链上，即C—C键断裂，而侧基C—F键的断裂相对较少。第三寿命强度I3的变化规律与τ3相反，即随吸收剂量的增大，第三寿命的强度I3降低，表明自由体积孔洞的浓度降低。 The radiation effect of polytetrafluoroethylene used as a kind of sealing material in the tritium system was studied by using electron beam. The superficial configuration and state were analyzed by SEM and XPS respectively, and the crystal degree and thermal stability were determined by XRD and DSC. At the same time the composition of gas products after radiation ,was measured by GC/MS, and the yield of CO2 with the dose increasing was analyzed. The free radicals produced in the process of radiation were studied by ESR, and the content of free volume of PTFE is analyzed by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The result is that the crystal structure of the sample irradiated at the dose of 1 × 10^5 Gy is of an obvious damage while the structure of the unirradiated sample is crystal band. The transformation of the sample which has high crystal degree amorphous one. The melting point and thermal ecomposition temperature trend sample＇s thermal stability drops. The radiation decomposition of the sample is is remarkable from crystal state to to decline, which indiccates that the mainly the rupture of C--C bond, and less is the rupture of C--F bond. The Intensity I3 of the third lifetime fails with increasing the absorbed dose, which demonstrates the reduction of free volume cave content. Compared with I3, the rule of τ3 is reverse.
综述了有关碳化硅材料中惰性气体离子引起辐照缺陷研究的进展。包括借助多种方法对氦离子辐照的碳化硅中氦泡集团形成的剂量阈值的实验研究，基于过冷固体假设对氦泡阈值的理论解释，不同剂量氦泡的两种形态及其机理的研究，以及重惰性气体离子（Ne，Xe）辐照下缺陷演化的特点。This paper gives a review of our recent studies on the defect production in silicon carbide induced by energetic inert-gas-ion irradiation. The work includes the study of the dose threshold for helium bubble formation by combining TEM, RBS-channeling and PAS, the theoretical analysis of the dose threshold for bubble formation based on the Frozen-Matrix assumption, two types of bubble arrangement at different dose regions and the study of damage um-ion production behavior in the case of irradiation with heavier inert-gas-ions （ Ne, Xe） as a comparison to heliirradiation.
先用120keV的碳离子注入非晶二氧化硅a：SiO2薄膜，再用能量为1754MeV的Xe离子辐照。注碳量为5．0×10^16—8．6×10^17ion／cm^2，Xe离子辐照剂量为1．0×10^11和5．0×10^11ion／cm^2。辐照后的样品中形成的新结构用显微傅立叶变换红外光谱仪进行测试分析。结果表明，Xe离子辐照引起了注碳a：SiO2中Si—C，C—C，Si—O—C键以及CO和CO2分子的形成与演化。在注碳量较高时，Xe离子辐照在样品中产生了大量的Si—C键。与注入未辐照和辐照的低注碳量样品比较，增强的Si—C键的形成，预示着辐照可引起注碳a：SiO2样品中的SiC结构相变。Amorphous silicon-dioxide （a：SiO2） films were firstly implanted at room temperature （RT） with 120 keV C-ions to doses ranging from 5.0 × 10^16 to 8.6 × 10^17 ion/cm^2, and then the C-doped a：SiO2 films were irradiated at RT with 1 754 MeV Xe ions to 1.0 × 10^11 and 5.0 × 10^11 ion/cm^2, respectively. The information of new tex- ture formation in the C-doped SiO2 films after high-energy Xe ion irradiation was investigated using micro-FTIR measurements. The obtained results showed that Si--C, C--C, Si--O--C bonds as well as CO and CO2 molecules were formed in the C-doped a-SiO2 films after Xe ion irradiation. Furthermore, Xe-ion irradiation induced a plenteous formation of Si--C bonds in the high dose C-ion implanted a：SiO2 films. Compared with the C-implanted sampies without Xe-ion irradiation and the low dose C-implanted samples with Xe-ion irraddiation, the enhanced and plenty of Si--C bond formation implied that the phase of SiC structures may be produced by Xe-ion irradiation in the high dose C-ion implanted a：SiO2 films.
激光惯性约束聚变使用的玻璃微球经中子辐照后，产生辐射增强扩散效应，Ar在玻璃微球中的扩散性能显著改善，获得了常规加热加压扩散方式无法得到的扩散效果。而带电离子辐照玻璃微球后Ar的扩散性能却没有明显改善。研究了中子和其它带电粒子辐射增强扩散效应的差异。After being radiated by neutron, the glass microspheres, which used in ICF research, have greatly increased the ability of Ar diffusion in it because of the radiation-enhanced diffusion. Such results cannot be achieved by means of thermal diffusion. But after being radiated by charged particles, the ability of Ar diffusion in glass has not increased very much. The differences of the radiation-enhanced diffusion caused by neutron and ions are presented.
600K温度下用110keV的He^＋，Ne^＋，Ar^＋离子注入及320K温度下用230MeV的^208Pb^27＋辐照Al2O3单晶样品，研究了离子注入和辐照对Al2O3单晶样品结构和光学特性的影响。从测得的光致发光谱可以清楚地看到，所有样品在波长为375，413和450nm处出现了强的发光峰。且所有5×10^16ion／cm^2注入样品的发光峰均最强。经过高能Pb辐照后的样品，在390nm处出现了新的发光峰。透射电镜分析发现在注入氖样品100nm入射深度以内形成了高浓度的小空洞（1-2nm），在Ne沉积区域有少量大空洞形成。傅立叶变换红外光谱分析发现，波数在460-510cm^-1间的振动吸收带经过离子辐照后展宽，随着辐照量的增大，该振动吸收强度显著减弱。1000—1300cm^-1对应Al-O-Al桥氧伸缩振动模式的吸收带，辐照后向高波数方向移动。对离子注入和辐照对Al2O3单晶样品结构损伤机理进行了初步探讨。Single crystal sapphire （Al2O3 ） samples were implanted at 600 K by He, Ne and Ar ions with energy of 110 keV to doses ranging from 5 × 10^16 to 2× 10^17 ion/cm^2 or irradiated at 320 K by ^208Pb^27＋ ion with energy of 1.1 MeV/u to the fluences ranging from 1 × 10^12 to 5 × 10^14 ion/cm^2. The modification of structure and optical properties induced by ion implantation or irradiation were analyzed by using photoluminescence（PL） and Fourier transformation infrared spectrum（FIR） spectra and transmission electron microscopy（ TEM ） measurements. The PL measurements showed that absorption peaks located at 375,413 and 450 nm appeared in all the implanted or irradiated samples, the PL intensities reached up to the maximum for the 5 × 10^16 ion/cm^2 implanted samples. After Pb-ion irradiation, a new peak located at 390 nm formed. TEM analyses showed that small size voids,（ 1--2 nm） with high density were formed in the region from the surface till to about 100 nm in depth and also large size Nebubble formed in the Ne-doped region. From the obtained FTIR spectra, it was found that Pb-ion irradiation induced broadening of the absorption band in 460-510 cm^-1 and position shift of the absorption band in 1 000- 1 300 cm^- 1 towards to high wavenumber. The possible damage mechanism in single crystal sapphire induced by energetic ion implantation or irradiation was briefly discussed.
经完全退火处理的Ti-Al-Zr合金表面注入不同剂量的N离子，并在pH值为10的溶液中进行电化学腐蚀试验。结果表明，N离子注入后，试样表面首先形成具有四方结构的ε-Ti2N，随着离子注入剂量的增加，四方结构的ε-Ti2N逐渐向立方结构的σ-TiN转变，X射线光电子能谱的分析结果也证实了这一变化过程；N离子的注入能明显改善Ti-Al-Zr合金表面的耐腐蚀性能，且在注入8×10^16 ion／cm^2时得到最佳的耐腐蚀性。根据原子碰撞理论对电化学腐蚀实验结果进行了理论分析。In the present investigation, fully annealed Ti-Al-Zr plates were implanted with different nitrogen fluences. The corrosion resistance was examined by the electrochemical methods in a solution with pH value of 10 at room temperature in order to determine the optimum fluenee that can give good corrosion resistance in a simulated nuclear reactor condition. The results show ε-Ti2N phase formed initially and then transformed into σ-TIN with increasing of nitrogen fluences, which was confirmed by the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy （XPS）. In addition, it can be found the increase of the corrosion resistance depends on the nitrogen fluence employed and the maximum improvement of the corrosion resistance was observed with a fluence of 8 × 10^16 N^＋ ion/cm^2. The mechanism of the corrosion resistance is attributed to defect accumulation, formatio on of amorphous phase and nanocrystallization in the implanted layer.
采用重离子辐照模拟方法和正电子湮没寿命测量技术研究了钨辐射损伤随辐照剂量的变化。20，60和90dpa（每个原子的位移次数）辐照损伤水平的实验结果表明，辐照在钨中产生单空位、双空位、位错和空位团等缺陷；随辐照剂量的增大，单空位、双空位和位错浓度增加，空位团的尺度和浓度都随之增大。Radiation damage in W has been studied as a function of irradiation dose by heavy ion simulation and positron annihilation lifetime measurement. The experimental results of 20, 60 and 90 dpa irradiations illustrate that the mono-and di-vacancies, dislocations and vacancy clusters are produced by the irradiation. The concentrations of the mono-and di-vacancies and dislocations and both the concentration and size of the vacancy clusters or voids all increase with the increasing of the irradiation dose.
载能离子穿过固体界面引起界面原子迁移使界面原子混合和物质成分变化，从而导致界面发生材料相变。简要介绍了载能离子辐照引起金属／绝缘体界面混合效应及相变现象的主要实验研究进展、低能离子和高能离子辐照引起金属／绝缘体界面现象差异，并对离子辐照引起界面混合及相变的机制进行了初步探讨。When penetrating an interface between two kind of solids, energetic ions can induce atomic diffusion at both sides of the interface and then result in intermixing, atom re-distribution or composition change, as well as phase transformation. Main progress on the study of intermixing and phase change at metal/insulator interface induced by energetic ion irradiations, the difference of phenomena occurred at metal/insulator interfaces induced by high-and low-energy ions were briefly reviewed. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms related to intermixing and phase change at metal/insulator interface produced by energetic ion irradiations were also discussed in short words.
介绍了利用载能离子辐照模拟研究反应堆结构材料中金属／金属界面原子扩散行为的实验进展，特别是辐照参数（如辐照剂量、辐照温度、核能损、电子能损以及膜结构等）对界面原子扩散行为的影响，并对可能的机理进行了简要的评述。 Atom diffusion at metal/metal interfaces is very important for property of reactor structural materials, which can be simulated by using energetic ion irradiations. The present situation of experimental studies on atom diffusion at metal/metal interfaces induced by energetic ion irradiations is reviewed. The influence of experimental parameters such as the irradiation dose, irradiation temperature, electronic energy loss, nuclear energy loss and the interface structure on the intermixing is emphatically introduced. In addition, the possible mechanisms of metal/ metal intermixing are also briefly described.
主要研究了铅离子辐照注碳4H—SiC样品在3个不同退火温度下傅立叶变换红外光谱的变化。从红外谱的变化可以知道铅辐照注碳4H-SiC样品在一定深度内出现了非晶层，波数在960—1450cm^-1范围内出现了干涉带，干涉带强度随着退火温度的升高而 变弱。1373K退火后样品的卢瑟福背散射分析结果显示，一定深度内硅原子的背散射产额明显减少。4H-SiC specimens were implanted with C-ions and then irradiated with Pb-ions, and subsequently annealed at three different temperatures. The samples were investigated by using Fourier transformation infrared spectrum（FTIR） and Rutherford backward scattering（RBS）. The obtained FTIR spectra showed that there is a buried amorphous layer close to the ion-incident surface and there are several interference fringes in the range from 960 to 1 450 cm ^-1. The intensity of fringes decreases with the increase of annealing temperature. The obtained RBS spectra showed that the yield of Si atoms in 4H-SiC crystal decreases in a well-defined depth region after annealing at 1 373 K.
电子束半导体探测器的测量精度易受到射线的能量、剂量率、入射方向和环境温度等条件的影响。此外，电子束测量射野中半导体探测器的存在将干扰均匀射野剂量场的正常分布。通过对P-型电子束半导体探测器在不同的电子束照射条件下的实际剂量测量，定量地评估了不同照射条件下电子束半导体探测器的剂量特性，以及它对电子束均匀照射野扰动的影响。The measurement accuracy of electron beam by using semiconductor detector is easily affected by beam energy, dose rate, beam incidence direction, environment temperature etc. Furthermore, the presence of the detectors on the patient surface perturbs the distribution of the radiation field. In the paper, the dose characteristics of semiconductor detector are quantitatively discussed. The perturbation of the symmetrical radiation field is investigated based on the measured results of P-type electron beam detector under different clinical conditions.
对重离子柬治癌的优势进行简要的回顾，并着重介绍了用于重离子放射治疗的治疗计划系统。治疗计划系统是一套软件系统，不同的硬件设施应有与其相匹配的软件系统，即治疗计划系统。在此基础上，针对兰州重离子加速器的特点提出一些关于治疗计划系统方面的构想。After a brief review concerning the advantages of heavy ions in radiotherapy, more interests are concentrated on treatment planning system （TPS） for heavy ion radiotherapy. Compared to the hardware devices such as accelerator and beam delivery system, the TPS is a set of software system, and different therapy facilities require their corresponding TPSs. Based on the specialities of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou （HIIRFL）, some suggestions on the TPS for tumor therapy at HIRFL finally are given.
目前放疗逆向计划中常用的目标函数有两种：基于剂量分布的目标函数和基于剂量．体积直方图（DVH）的目标函数。实际系统都基于单目标优化算法进行，不考虑逆向计划的多目标性。在Pareto多目标优化理论的基础上，研究逆向计划的目标函数设置问题，比较基于剂量分布的目标函数和基于DVH的目标函数对多目标优化过程的影响，包括优化时间、收敛性和存在的问题等，为逆向计划过程中多目标优化目标函数的设置提供依据。There are two kinds of objective functions in radiotherapy inverse planning： dose distribution-based and Dose-Volume Histogram （DVH）-based functions. The treatment planning in our days is still a trial and error process because the multi-objective problem is solved by transforming it into a single objective problem using a specific set of weights for each object. This work investigates the problem of objective function setting based on Pareto multi-optimization theory, and compares the effect on multi-objective inverse planning of those two kinds of objective functions including calculation time, converge speed, etc. The basis of objective function setting on inverse planning is discussed.
蒙特卡罗方法是目前最精确的剂量计算方法，但其较长的模拟时间阻碍了它在临床治疗中的应用。基于蒙特卡罗程序MCNP4c，针对一临床头部病例，探讨了记数方法、电子和光子截断能、光子产生次级电子参数ENUM对计算速度和精度的影响，给出了在保证一定精度前提下的最佳计算模式，以获得计算速度的有效提升。Monte its long simulation and photons, and investigated based Carlo method is regarded as the most accurate method for dose calculation at present, whereas time hinders its clinic application. The effects of the tally method, the cut-off energy of electrons the secondary electron number parameter ENUM on precision and speed of MCNP4c have been on a clinical case to seek for a relatively optimum calculation mode.
以人类肝癌细胞SMMC-7721和正常肝细胞L02为研究对象，以这两种细胞0．3Gy时超敏感性的存活数据为基础，从理论上探讨了γ射线照射时，用超分次技术治疗肝癌的可能性。经过计算发现：如果目标肿瘤和周围的正常组织超敏感性的存活差异提高到3％，即可利用超分次技术对肿瘤进行治疗。应用超分次进行分次照射时，照射的结果与分次的间隔时间有关。对这一现象的机理进行了一定的探讨，发现时间间隔与细胞G2期的长短可能存在一定的相关性。Based on the survival data of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 and normal liver L02 cells irradiated with γ-rays at 0.3 Gy and 2 Gy, the possibility of uhra-fractionated radiotherapy is discussed in this paper. According to calculations, it is found that if the difference in cell survival between target tumor and adjacent normal tissue is up to 3%, radiotherapy using HRS would be realized through uhra-fractionation. Furthermore, the low-dose response is time-dependent. After analyzing this phenomenon, it was pointed that there would be a correlation between fractionation interval and the duration of cell G2 phase.
基于混合Batho修正的规则束模型剂量计算方法可以根据放射治疗过程中加速器相关物理参数和从病人的医学影像数据中获取的人体组织非均匀信息计算出人体内的剂量场数据。在简要介绍该方法的基础上，通过将其计算结果与仿真头模的实测结果进行对比，初步证明了该方法可以作为一种较为可靠的快速剂量计算方法供临床治疗计划系统使用。The dose distribution can be calculated by the Regular Beam Model （RBM） dose engine based on the accelerator parameters and the inhomogeneity data of the patient for the radiotherapy planning. In this paper, the newly-developed mixed Batho correction based RBM is introduced, and then the calculation results are compared with the measured ones using the head phantom. The results demonstrate that the RBM dose engine can be used as a kind of reliable fast dose calculation tool in the clinical treatment planning system.
This paper introduces the newest research production on patient positioning method in accurate radiotherapy brought by Accurate Radiotherapy Treating System （ARTS） research team of Institute of Plasma Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, such as the positioning system based on binocular vision, the position-measuring system based on contour matching and the breath gate controlling system for positioning. Their basic principle, the application occasion and the prospects are briefly depicted.
研究了L-α-丙氨酸剂量计测量^12C离子辐射的剂量学特性，实验证明丙氨酸剂量计适用于^12C离子辐射的剂量学测量。另外，还研究了^12C离子照射人外周血诱发的染色体畸变（双着丝粒＋着丝粒环）的剂量效应，在0-8．0Gy范围内拟合的最佳回归方程为Y=0．858503D＋0．3615×10^-2D^2。Dosimetric characteristics of L-α-alanine dosemeter used for dosimetry of ^12C ion radiation have been studied. The experimental results indicate that the alanine dosemeter can be used to measure the ^12C ion radiation. In addition, dose effects of chromosome aberration dicentrics and cenric rings were studied after human peripheral blood being irradiated by ^12C ions; the best regression equation, Y = 0. 858 503D ＋ 0. 361 5 ×10^-2D^2, was obtained within 8.0 Gy.
复杂几何模型的建立是Monte Carlo粒子输运程序MCNP／MCNPX在放疗领域广泛应用的关键与难点，发展了基于医学CT影像的MCNP／MCNPX自动建模软件，提出并实现了3种几何栅元划分的方法。根据临床实例数据，分别建立了3种MCNP几何模型。在此基础上，研究分析了3种几何栅元划分方法及重复结构描述方法对计算结果的影响，为MCNP／MCNPX在放疗中的应用提供基础。The key problem for the application of the Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNP/MCNPX in radiotherapy is the creation of complex geometrical model. To handle this problem, a software has been developed to automatically create MCNP/MCNPX geometrical model based on the CT images, and three geometric cell treatment schemes were proposed and implemented in this software. In this work, three MCNP models are created, and calculations are performed to investigate the effect of those cell treatment schemes and repeated structure technique on the calculation results.