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2016年  第33卷  第3期

核物理
并合不变中子质子产额比值角分布各向异性与对称能关系的研究
吴强华, 张英逊, 肖志刚, 王仁仲, 张嫣, 李祝霞, 王宁
2016, 33(3): 251-257. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.33.03.251
摘要:
采用ImQMD05模型分析了非对称反应体系40Ar+197Au,124Sn在中低能区(Ebeam=35~100 MeV/u)的半擦边反应的条件下的反应机制,并进一步探索了不同模型参数,如对称能斜率、碰撞参数等,对轻粒子并合不变中子质子产额之比角分布各向异性的影响。通过研究发现:对于出射动能大于每核子10 MeV的动力学出射的轻粒子而言,其并合不变的中子质子产额比值角分布各向异性与对称能的软硬具有明显的关联;碰撞参数对轻粒子动力学发射各向异性的影响最弱。

By using the ImQMD05 code,we simulate the 40Ar+197Au,+124Sn at beam energy of 35,50 and 100 MeV/u and semi-peripheral collisions.The reaction mechanism,symmetry potential and Coulomb potential competition around the overlapped neck region and impact parameters effects are investigated for understanding the angular distribution of isospin contents of dynamical emitted light particles.Our results show that the angular anisotropy of the coalescence invariant neutron to proton yield ratios is sensitive to the stiffness of symmetry energy,especially for the dynamical emitted light particles with Ek>10 MeV.
中能重离子反应中对称势对熵的影响
王阔, 郭文军, 张霄吉
2016, 33(3): 258-262. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.33.03.258
摘要:
基于同位旋相关的量子分子动力学模型,研究了对称势、束流能量、对称能强度系数对中能重离子碰撞反应系统的熵的影响。研究发现,对称势对熵有一定影响,且对熵的影响大小与反应系统中质比有关。另外发现在40Ca+40Ca和40Si+40Si反应系统中对称能强度系数对熵也有影响,当对称能强度系数c=32 MeV时,对这两个系统来说其对熵的影响最大。通过实验上对熵的测量可以得到对称势的形式和大小。

Based on the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model,effects of the symmetry potential,incident beam energy and different symmetry energy strength coefficients on the entropy of reaction system are studied.The results show that the symmetry potential affects the entropy,and the effect changes with the neutron-proton ratio of the reaction system.Besides,in 40Ca+40Ca and 40Si+40Sireaction systems,the symmetry energy strength coefficient also has effect on the entropy when the symmetry energy strength coefficient c=32 MeV,the effect on the entropy is largest for the two systems.Therefore the form and size of symmetry potential could be obtained by comparison of the model calculation and the experiments on the measurement of entropy.
平均场加邻近轨道对力模型描述N=94同中异质素性质
戴连荣, 张万里
2016, 33(3): 263-267. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.33.03.263
摘要:
利用严格可解的Nilsson平均场加邻近轨道对力模型,在区分质子和中子情况下,研究了大形变核的性质,主要计算了中子数为N=94的同中异质素的结合能、奇偶能差和转动惯量,并与相应的实验值进行了系统比较,结果表明此模型可以合理描述这些性质,正确反映原子核奇偶性质的变化规律。然后以偶偶核160Dy为例,研究了基态中各角动量J=0,1,...,12价核子对的占有率。结果表明,偶角动量占有率远高于奇角动量占有率,其中S,D,G价核子对各组份在基态波函数中是主要的。

The Nilsson mean-field plus the nearest orbit pairing model for deformed nuclei is applied to investigate systematically the properties of the N=94 nuclei,employing both proton-proton and neutron-neutron pairing interactions.The binding energies,even-odd mass differences,moments of inertia are calculated and compared with the corresponding experimental data.The results show that this model can reasonably describe these properties.Further,the ground-state occupation probabilities of valence nucleon pairs with angular momentum J=0,1,...,12 for even-even 160Dy are calculated,and the results show that it is much higher for the even angular momenta than the odd angular momenta,and the S,D,G components in the ground-state wave function are dominant.
丰中子锰同位素的壳模型计算
金华, 王韩奎, 孙扬
2016, 33(3): 268-273. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.33.03.268
摘要:
利用球形壳模型和投影壳模型两种方法对Z≤28,N=40附近pf壳的丰中子核素的结构进行了一系列的研究。以丰中子的锰同位素为例讨论了对奇奇核58,60Mn的两种壳模型计算结果。结果显示,两种理论方法都很好地再现了58,60Mn实验上观测到的从低激发到高自旋态的能级。在对这两个同位素由中子g9/2轨道闯入所产生的负宇称转动带进行描述时,两种理论计算也得到了一致的结果。通过对比,阐明了两种壳模型方法及其采用的有效相互作用在该丰中子核区的适用性,特别强调了中子g9/2轨道的激发对于pfZ≤28丰中子核素结构的重要性。

Recently,we have carried out a series of studies on the structures of pf shell neutron-rich nuclei around N=40 using the spherical shell model and the projected shell model respectively.As an example,these two types of shell model calculations for the neutron-rich odd-odd isotopes 58,60Mn are discussed in this paper.The results show that both the calculations reproduce the observed experimental energy levels from the lowexcitation states to the high-spin ones in 58,60Mn.Consistent results are also obtained by these two theoretical calculations when describing the negative-parity rotational band derived from the intruder neutron g9/2 orbital in both isotopes.Through comparison,we show the applicability of these two shell model methods and the adopted effective interactions in the present neutron-rich mass region.The significance of the excitations from neutron g9/2 orbital to the structures of the neutron-rich nuclei in pf shell with Z≤28 are especially emphasized in this paper.
几百兆电子伏特/核子能区原子核诱发乳胶核反应靶核蒸发碎片前后发射研究(英文)
杨瑞霞, 徐明明, 马田丽, 张智, 石瑞, 张东海
2016, 33(3): 274-280. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.33.03.274
摘要:
对150 AMeV 4He-AgBr,290 AMeV 12C-AgBr,400 AMeV 12C-AgBr,400 AMeV 20Ne-AgBr及500 AMeV 56Fe-AgBr作用靶核蒸发碎片在反应前后半球内的多重数分布、多重数矩、标度方差、熵及约化熵分别进行了分析。实验结果表明,靶核蒸发碎片在前后半球内的多重数分布可以用高斯分布来描述。在前后半球内的多重数分布矩分别随秩数的增加而增加,且前后半球内多重数分布二阶矩与反应类型及束流能量无关。对于所有研究的核反应,其标度方差(一个直接描述多重数涨落的变量)值接近于1,表明在前后半球内靶核蒸发的发射存在较弱的关联。在前后半球内靶核蒸发碎片发射过程中的熵及约化熵在实验误差范围内与反应系统无关。

The multiplicity distribution,multiplicity moment,scaled variance,entropy and reduced entropy of target evaporated fragments emitted in forward and backward hemispheres in 150 AMeV 4He-AgBr,290 AMeV 12C-AgBr,400 AMeV 12C-AgBr,400 AMeV 20Ne-AgBr and 500 AMeV 56Fe-AgBr interactions are investigated.It is found that the multiplicity distribution of target evaporated fragments emitted in both forward and backward hemispheres can be fitted by a Gaussian distribution.The multiplicity moments of target evaporated particles emitted in the forward and backward hemispheres increase with the order of the moment q,and the second-order multiplicity moment is energy independent over the entire energy range for all the interactions in the forward and backward hemisphere.The scaled variance,a direct measure of multiplicity fluctuations,is close to one for all the interactions,which indicate a weak correlation among the target evaporated fragments.The entropy of target evaporated fragments emitted in forward and backward hemispheres are the same respectively for all of the interactions,within experimental errors.
极端相对论能量的质子质子碰撞中的Ks0和Λ产生(英文)
蔡燕兵, 李云德
2016, 33(3): 281-285. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.33.03.281
摘要:
基于微扰量子色动力学计算了相对论重离子碰撞中的Ks0和Λ的横向动量谱。发现初态部分子产生过程是主要的,光生过程的贡献在LHC能量是明显的。通过考虑光生过程,理论计算能够较好描述实验数据。数值计算结果表明,在相对论重离子碰撞中光生过程对Ks0和Λ的修正是不可忽略的。

The transverse momentum spectrum of Ks0 and Λ in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is calculated based on perturbative quantum chromodynamics.It is found that the initial parton production processes are prominent and the contribution of photoproduction processes is evident at LHC energies.By taking into account the photoproduction processes,the theoretical simulations could give nice descriptions of experimental data.The numerical results indicate that the modification of photoproduction processes of Ks0 and Λ cannot be negligible in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.
加速器
ADS注入器II的5 MeV高能传输线的设计与搭建
贾欢, 何源, 原有进, 袁辰彰, 张鹏, 韩少菲
2016, 33(3): 286-290. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.33.03.286
摘要:
ADS先导专项的注入器Ⅱ计划在将质子束通过一个Cryomodule加速到5 MeV后,进行10 mA连续束流的调试,以验证ADS低能段的强流超导直线加速器技术。为了将50 kW的束流功率沉积到束流垃圾站,需要搭建一条高能束流传输线,从超导段开始传输束流。采用两套三组合四极透镜控制束流包络及垃圾站的束流尺寸,利用诊断真空室进行水平和垂直发射度的测量。为避免束流产生的真空管道损伤,该传输线必须确保束流无损失地传输到垃圾站。

A CW 10 mA,5 MeV beam commissioning of CADS Injector Ⅱ is planed recently to test the high power superconduction linac techniques.To transport 50 kW beam from linac to the beam dump,a high energy beam line (HEBT) line is designed and setup.Two Triplet are used to control the beam size along HEBT and at the beam dump.One diagnostics box is used for horizontal and vertical emittance measurement.To avoid damages to the vacuum pipe,beam should be transported to the beam dump without losses.The details of the HEBT design will be described in the paper.
ILC正电子源靶接触热传导冷却技术的初步研究
张校铭, 张子民, 宗阳, 曹树春, 申晓康, 李中平, 刘铭
2016, 33(3): 291-296. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.33.03.291
摘要:
国际直线对撞机(ILC)正电子靶沉积的热功率将超过20 kW,传统的冷却方式已无法满足要求。美国Argonne国家实验室提出了摩擦接触热传导冷却的方法。根据Argonne实验室的研究方案,设计了一种旋转摩擦接触冷却的简化装置,根据热传导理论,结合ANSYS软件模拟了旋转冷却过程中的温度分布,理论上验证了方法的可行性。按照模拟的参数和结果,进行了摩擦接触热传导冷却实验,通过实验结果和数据分析证实了,低温区(20℃~50℃)有良好的冷却效应,初步验证了摩擦接触热传导冷却方案的有效性。

A new scheme that cooling international Linear Collider (ILC) positron source target by touching thermal conduction (TTC) is presented by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).Recent results of simulation for cooling the iron targets with 300 and 450 W heat reservoir by ANSYS and experiment of cooling the iron target with 300 and 450 W friction heat reservoir at Institute of Modern Physics (IMP),Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS),have proved that the TTC has good cooling effect in low temperature zone (20℃~50℃),and preliminarily verified the feasibility of TTC for cooling the ILC positron source target.
武威医用重离子加速器同步环的准直安装
陈文军, 马力祯, 蔡国柱, 崔治国, 王少明, 袁建东, 华永平, 柴一亮, 李玉春
2016, 33(3): 297-301. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.33.03.297
摘要:
武威医用重离子加速器是目前世界上最紧凑的重离子加速器治癌装置,同步环周长小至56.1 m,其中很多关键元件的安装定位精度要求达到亚毫米量级,四极透镜的定位精度要求0.1 mm。结合激光跟踪仪的特点和测量学知识通过三维控制网及多重坐标系的转换,探索了一种在元件自身坐标系下调节准直的方法,提高了准直安装的工作效率,使得最后所有的元件安装各向误差均控制在0.1 mm以内,其结果优于该装置的精度要求,使得同步环在短时间内顺利调束成功,从而验证了同步环准直测量的可靠性与准确性。

Wuwei Heavy ion medical machine (HIMM) is the most compact accelerator facility for heavy ion therapy in the world,which has a circumference about 56.1 m.The alignment accuracy of many components of the machine should be submillimeter level.For example,the positioning accuracy of quadrupoles should be within 0.1 mm according to design target.With the combination of laser tracker and surveying knowledge,we develop a method that adjusts and collimates elements under the elements themselves coordinates via three-dimensional control network and the transformation of multiple coordinates to improve the efficiency of installation alignment.By this way,the deviation of each direction from all elements is under 0.1 mm and the result is better than the design target,which leads to the successful commission of Wuwei HIMM.Consequently,the feasibility of this method developed is verified.
核技术
核素等时性质量测量实验中一种基于离子速度纯化次级束的方法
刘大委, 王猛, 徐星, 颜鑫亮, 帅鹏, 涂小林, 张玉虎, 陈瑞九, 邢元明, 原有进, 杨建成, 徐瑚珊, 夏佳文
2016, 33(3): 302-307. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.33.03.302
摘要:
等时性质量谱仪(Isochronous Mass Spectrometry,IMS)是测量短寿命核素质量的有效实验装置。在IMS核素质量测量实验过程中,目标核素通过弹核碎裂反应产生,并被次级束流线分离、传输后注入到储存环内。由于远离稳定线的目标核素产额非常低,经常伴随大量杂质核素产生,这些杂质离子会加重飞行时间探测器(Time of Flight,TOF)系统的工作负担。在HIRFL-CSR利用IMS进行核素质量测量实验过程中,发展了一种进一步纯化筛选次级离子的方法,以减轻TOF系统的工作负担。基于次级离子在束流线中飞行速度的差异性,利用HIRFL-CSR踢轨磁铁(Kicker)系统,调节次级束流注入CSRe的时间,使次级离子得到进一步筛选和纯化后注入到CSRe内。在实验中,我们测试并验证了该方法的可行性,并讨论了它在纯化次级束流方面的作用。

The isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful experimental instrument for measuring masses of short-lived nuclides.In the IMS,the nuclides of interest are produced via the projectile fragmentation reaction,then injected into the storage ring after the in-flight separation with beam line.The yields of the nuclides of interest are usually very small accompanying a huge amount of contaminant nuclides,aggravating the load of time-of-flight (TOF) detector.In the IMS nuclear mass measurement experiment conducted at the HIRFL-CSR,we developed a method of purifying the secondary beam fragments to ease the burden of the TOF detector,which is based on the differences of the ions' velocities in the beam line and realized by adjusting the injection time of secondary fragments using the Kicker system of the HIRFL-CSR.We tested and verified the method in an online experiment,and its performance is discussed in this paper.
光中子源上吸收片功能研究
朱亮, 刘龙祥, 王宏伟, 马余刚, 李琛, 张国强, 张松, 钟晨, 曹喜光, 张桂林, 陈金根, 蔡翔舟, 韩建龙, 胡继峰, 王小鹤
2016, 33(3): 308-314. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.33.03.308
摘要:
15 MeV电子直线加速器驱动的光中子源装置,将用于中国科学院战略性先导科技专项“钍基熔盐堆”中的核数据初步测量工作、中子探测器的研制和反应堆相关材料的辐照研究等。光中子源的中子能谱是连续的,中子能量通过中子飞行时间法测量得到,需要利用吸收片确认中子吸收峰,刻度飞行时间,计算等效飞行距离,扣除实验本底等,而实验本底的扣除对最终总截面计算有很大的影响。因此通过Geant4蒙特卡罗模拟软件构建了包括中子源、吸收片在内的模拟实验环境;研究了不同吸收片的吸收谱和吸收片厚度的关系,同理论计算值进行了比较,给出了推荐的吸收片厚度值;模拟计算了中子飞行时间谱,并和实验测量结果比较,确定中子等效飞行距离为5.70 m。Geant4的理论计算也可以模拟出多吸收片本底函数曲线,可用于实验数据的本底扣除和误差分析。实验测量、模拟分析以及理论公式计算的吸收片厚度和中子飞行时间参数得到了完全一致的结果,验证了实验测量的可靠性。

A photo-neutron source driven by a 15 MeV electron LINAC is built for the "Strategic Priority Research Program" of the Chinese Academy of Sciences-the "thorium-based molten salt reactor" project to conduct the nuclear data measurement work,develop neutron detector and carry out reactor material irradiation studies.Since the neutron energy spectrum is continuous,the neutron energy is measured by the time of flight (TOF) method,and neutron filters are needed to confirm absorption peaks,calibrate the TOF,calculate the equivalent flight distance,and remove the experimental background which has great influence on the calculation accuracy of the total cross section.Based on the Monte Carlo simulation tool,Geant4 a simulation environment is set up,including neutron source and neutron filters,to study the energy absorption spectra and thickness of different filters and recommended data for the thickness are provided.The neutron TOF spectra are simulated and compared with experimental measurement,deciding the equivalent TOF distance to be 5.7 m.Geant4 can also simulate the background curve of multiple filters and be used to remove background and analyze errors for the experimental data.All the experiments,simulation and theoretical calculation show consistent results on filter thickness and neutron TOF parameters,indicating the accuracy of the measurement.
小型宇宙射线探测仪的模拟和测量
王荣, 韩成栋, 张亚鹏, 赵凤仪, 李瑶, 付强, 尹俊, 倪发福, 王彦瑜, 张鹏鸣, 陈旭荣
2016, 33(3): 315-320. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.33.03.315
摘要:
介绍了一款小型宇宙射线探测仪。该仪器具有宇宙射线科普演示功能,主要用于实时测量μ子射线并显示计数,以及长时间尺度下(年)稳定地对不同角度的次级宇宙线通量进行监控记录。简要地展示了探测器的硬件构造和探测效率的模拟计算。探测仪单个探测器的探测效率为93.1%,两个探测器符合测量的探测效率为86.6%。根据探测器的计数率以及模拟计算的探测效率,估计了次级宇宙射线垂直地面方向的通量,为J=29±3 m-2 sr-1 s-1。另外,利用该宇宙射线探测仪,测量了兰州市区的次级宇宙射线的天顶角分布。其结果很好地满足I(θ)=IH+I0 cosα θ经验公式,其中的角度依赖参数α=2.42±0.52。

A small cosmic ray device is introduced in this paper.It has the demonstration function for popularization of science,and can be used mainly to display the μ counts in a real-time measurement,and to monitor the secondary cosmic ray flux at different angles in a very long time scale (years).We briefly show the hardware of the device and the detecting efficiency calculation by simulation.The detecting efficiency for one detector of the device is 93.1%,and the detecting efficiency is 86.6% for the coincidence measurement of two detectors.Based on the count rate by the detector and the simulated efficiency,the secondary cosmic ray flux perpendicular to the ground surface is measured,which is J=29±3 m-2sr-1 s-1.Moreover,with an application of the device,we measured the angular distribution of the secondary cosmic ray rate in Lanzhou City.The resulting angular distribution agrees well with the empirical formula as I(θ)=IH+I0 cosα θ,in which the parameter for the angle-dependence is α=2.42±0.53.
一种基于阶梯阈值的射线违禁品探测方法
陈勇, 常青青
2016, 33(3): 321-325. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.33.03.321
摘要:
在γ射线违禁品探测技术中,快速准确的γ射线康普顿散射信号平滑具有非常重要的意义。现有的多项式平滑法和小波分析方法不仅运算速度慢,且易受噪声干扰,容易出现弱峰、谱峰错位等问题。为解决上述问题,提出一种新的基于阶梯阈值的散射信号分析方法。首先通过数据预处理,计算康普顿散射信号的基底变量,然后根据自适应阶梯阈值和测量差值,依次迭代更新背散射数据,进行信号滤波,最后自动检测峰位,实现可疑物识别。实验结果表明,相比现有的信号分析方法,阶梯阈值算法能够降低噪声干扰,保留康普顿散射信号的峰值和峰位,运算速度快,满足便携式探测设备的实时性要求。

Fast and accurate Compton scattering signal smoothing plays an important part for γ-ray-based contraband identification.Traditional methods based on polynomial averaging or wavelet analysis are not only slow but also sensitive to noise,which makes them suffer from issues such as peak amplitude decrease and peak dislocation.A new method based on step threshold is proposed for scattering signal analysis,which can overcome aforementioned issues.Firstly,the base value for Compton scattering signal is computed via data pre-processing.Secondly,the scattering data is iteratively updated using adaptive threshold and system measurement,thus producing smoothed signal data.At last,the peak is localized from the filtered signal data and abnormality is identified.Experimental results show that our method is robust against noise compared to existing methods.The amplitude and location of the peak can be accurately perceived and identified.The method is efficient and can be deployed on portable contraband detection devices.
PuO2颗粒对自发α射线的能量自吸收效应评估研究
罗文, 祝小惠, 宋英明, 朱志超
2016, 33(3): 326-329. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.33.03.326
摘要:
构建PuO2颗粒状α发射体的球体几何模型,采用蒙特卡罗和射程经验公式模拟计算α射线在PuO2颗粒中的射程能量关系式及α射线从PuO2颗粒表面出射的能谱分布,研究因PuO2颗粒对自发α射线的能量自吸收效应导致的对人体内照射剂量评估的影响。研究结果表明,PuO2粒径越大,其对自发α射线的能量自吸收效应越明显,内照射剂量的修正效果越好;当PuO2粒径在2 μm以上时,内照射剂量的修正效果大于5%。本研究的结果对吸入放射性物质所致人体内照射剂量的准确估算有重要的参考价值,并可应用于放射性核素肿瘤治疗等领域的微剂量学研究。

A sphere geometry model for plutonium oxide-based alpha emitter was setup.The range of alpha particle in plutonium oxide pellet versus its energy and the spectral distribution of alpha particle emerging from the emitter surface were calculated using Monte Carlo method combined with the empirical formula of range.The internal radiation dose resulted by self-absorption effect of α-rays emitted spontaneously in plutonium oxide was investigated accordingly.The result shows that the larger particle size the plutonium oxide-based alpha emitter has,the more obvious the self-absorption effect is and the better the correction effect of the intake absorbed dose that effects on human lung has.For plutonium oxide pellet with its particle size exceeding 2 μm,the correction quantity is expected to be larger than 5%.Our work is beneficial for a precise evaluation of internal radiation dose induced by inhaled radioactive material and microdosimetry study in radionuclide tumor therapy.
应用蒙特卡罗方法对比研究ADS颗粒靶和块状靶(英文)
陈建琪, 张雅玲, 张勋超, 闫雪松, 李建洋, 杨磊
2016, 33(3): 330-335. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.33.03.330
摘要:
应用蒙特卡罗软件FLUKA对比研究了颗粒靶和块状实体靶在中子、质子泄露,中子、质子流强,能量沉积,残余核活度及Gamma射线剂量率的差异。最终结果显示在靶的轴对称方向,相较块状靶,颗粒靶中的中子流强和能量沉积更加均匀,且侧壁泄露中子更多而反冲中子较少。除此之外,在散裂产物放射性方面,尽管有部分核素两种靶具有相似的活度,但是颗粒靶总的放射性活度要比块状靶低。因此以上特性使得颗粒靶相较块状实体靶更适合用于ADS的靶。

Using the Fluka Monte Carlo code,the comparison study between granular target and monolith target in neutron and proton leakages,neutron and proton fluxes,energy deposition density and residual radioactivity as well as gamma dose rates were presented.Results shows that the neutron flux and energy deposition in tungsten spheres target are more homogeneous along the axial direction than monolith target.What's more,the granular target has a more lateral neutron yield and a relatively small amount of neutrons in the backward direction.In addition,the total radioactivity is found to be comparatively lower in granular target,although for some nuclei,the value of their activities are similar for both targets.So the above features make the granular target more suitable as a ADS target.
交叉学科
高分辨率及高灵敏度小动物PET研究进展
邝忠华, 李成, 李兰君, 胡战利, 张玲, 谭思晴, 张健, 胡启斌, 王晓辉, 杨永峰
2016, 33(3): 336-344. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.33.03.336
摘要:
作为一种高灵敏度且具有定量测量能力的功能分子影像技术,小动物PET越来越广泛地用于各种生物医学研究,例如疾病动物模型研究、新药物研发和新治疗方法评估等。首先回顾小动物PET成像系统的发展历史、效率和空间分辨率等性能的改进和产业化;其次,讨论了影响PET空间分辨率和效率的各种因素,包括晶体大小、探测器几何、正电子射程、光子非共线效应、图像重建算法和阻碍PET系统同时达到高空间分辨率和高效率的相互作用深度不确定效应;最后,介绍了小动物PET成像系统在以下几个方面的取得的最新进展:(1)高密度、小的光衰减常数和高光产额的闪烁晶体;(2)体积小、增益大、时间性能好、工作电压低和磁兼容的新型硅光电倍增管光探测器;(3)各种深度测量PET探测器,详细介绍了一个可达到分辨0.43 mm×0.43 mm×20 mm晶格和达到2.4 mm深度分辨率的双端读出探测器;(4)使用深度测量探测器的小动物PET成像系统,详细介绍了一个使用高分辨率双端读出探测器,全视野达到0.55 mm平均位置分辨率的小动物PET原型系统;(5)磁兼容插件式小动物PET成像系统和PET/MRI同时成像的优点;(6)小动物PET图像重建和数据校正的特点、传统的滤波反投影算法和新的迭代算法的优缺点和PET图像重建算法未来的发展方向。

As the most sensitive and quantitative molecular imaging technique,small animal positron emission tomography (PET) has become a widely used tool in biomedical research such as in animal model of human disease,development of new drugs and the evaluation of new therapeutics.In this paper,first the history,the efforts to improve the spatial resolution and sensitivity as well as the commercialization process of small animal PET scanner are reviewed.Then the factors that affect the spatial resolution and sensitivity of PET scanner such as crystal size,detector geometry,positron range,photon noncollinearity and imaging reconstruction are discussed in detail.The depth of interaction effect which hinders the simultaneous achievement of PET spatial resolution and sensitivity are also discussed.Finally the recent progress made in the following areas of small animal PET instrumentation are introduced:(1) high density,short light decay constant and bright scintillator,(2) compact,high gain,good timing resolution,low bias voltage and MRI compatible silicon photomultiplier,(3) depth encoding detectors by using different methods,a detector using dual-ended readout,identifying 0.43 mm×0.43 mm×20 mm crystals and achieving a 2.4 mm depth of interaction resolution was introduced in detail,(4) small animal PET scanners using depth encoding detectors,a prototype scanner using high resolution dualended readout detectors and achieving an average of 0.55 mm spatial resolution in the whole field of view was introduced in detail.(5) MRI compatible small animal PET inserts and the advantage of simultaneous PET/MRI imaging,(6) image reconstruction and data correction of small animal PET,the filter back projection and iterative reconstruction algorithms are compared and a few key directions of PET image reconstruction will be presented.
重离子放射治疗双微小展宽峰组合照射方法
姬腾飞, 刘新国, 戴中颖, 贺鹏博, 闫渊林, 黄齐艳, 李强
2016, 33(3): 345-352. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.33.03.345
摘要:
在基于被动式束流配送系统的分层适形重离子治疗当中,需要利用微型脊形过滤器(mini ridge filter,mini-RF)将单能重离子束Bragg峰展宽为峰区近似高斯分布的微小展宽峰(mini spread-out Bragg peak,mini-SOBP),从而达到减少照射分层数及照射时间的目的。采用较宽的mini-SOBP可以有效减少照射分层数,但会增大展宽Bragg峰(SOBP)远端剂量跌落距离,增加对靶区后方正常组织或危及器官的辐照剂量。这一问题可以通过双mini-SOBP的组合照射方法来解决。使用2种mini-RF对单能重离子束Bragg峰略微展宽得到2种半高宽(FWHM)且剂量分布近似高斯分布的mini-SOBP,通过基于放射生物学模型的剂量优化,证实了在SOBP平顶区按生物有效剂量均匀和物理吸收剂量均匀的展宽情况下,双mini-SOBP组合照射方法均可以在减少照射分层数的同时较大幅度地减小SOBP远端剂量跌落距离。

In layer-stacking conformal heavy-ion therapy based on passive beam delivery system,it is necessary to minimize the layer numbers and reduce irradiation time for layer-stacking conformal heavy-ion therapy.Gaussian shaped mini spread-out Bragg peaks (mini-SOBP) were generated by mini ridge filters (mini-RF) for monoenergetic heavy ion beams.It is effective to minimize the layer number by using mini-SOBPs with the bigger full width at the half maximum (FWHM),but in this way the distal dose fall-off distance of a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) will be enlarged,increasing the radiation damage to normal tissue or organ at risk behind the target volume.This issue could be solved by using mini-SOBPs based combinatorial irradiation method.In this study,Gaussian shaped mini-SOBPs with two different FWHMs were generated by two different mini-RFs for monoenergetic heavy ion beams.Based on radiobiological model calculations and dose optimizations,the mini-SOBPs based combinatorial irradiation method was confirmed to reduce the distal dose fall-off distances of SOBPs while minimizing the layer numbers for layer-stacking conformal heavy-ion therapy.
低能质子辐照活体细胞的能量沉积特性
张宁, 张鑫, 闫学文, 林崇楠, 王广甫, 邵剑雄, 陈熙萌
2016, 33(3): 353-357. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.33.03.353
摘要:
为了研究带电粒子与活体细胞的相互作用,利用能量为2,2.5,3 MeV的质子外束,在室温环境下对厚约50 nm的氮化硅支持膜上的毕赤酵母菌进行辐照,并用金硅面垒探测器测量其透射能谱,通过对能量沉积特性的分析,表明质子外束穿过毕赤酵母菌后能损随入射能的增大而减小,但能量歧离随入射能的增大而增大。

To study the interaction of charged particles with biological living cells,we delivered 2,2.5 and 3 MeV protons outside vacuum as external beam at room temperature to irradiate yeast Pichia cells which are supported by 50 nm thick silicon nitride film and the transmission energy spectrum were measured by an Au-Si surface barrier detector to analyze energy deposition properties.The results demonstrate that the energy loss decreases with the incident protons energy increase,but the energy straggling increases with incident protons energy increase.
FPGA配置片反熔丝PROMs加速器地面单粒子效应特性研究
耿超, 李孝远, 林熠, 罗春华, 谢文刚, 邓玉良, 李达
2016, 33(3): 358-364. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.33.03.358
摘要:
针对0.13 μm CMOS(Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor)体硅外延工艺下FPGA(Field Programmable Gate Arrays)配置片反熔丝PROM(Programmable-Read-Only-Memory)进行了单粒子效应(Single Event Effects SEEs)的加速器地面模拟试验研究。以PROM的存储容量、数据类型和工艺差异性为研究变量,考核与验证其在不同种类和能量粒子入射的系列性加速器地面SEEs模拟试验。研究结果表明,相对于8 Mbits PROM而言,空片16 Mbits PROM抗辐射性能最优,且从翻转饱和截面上说,16 Mbits的PROM具备更高的可靠性,优于国外同系列的芯片类型,试验用PROM芯片的单粒子锁定阈值>99.0 MeV·cm2/mg。另一方面,研究0.13 μm CMOS普通与深阱工艺技术下PROM芯片单粒子翻转效应异同性的实验数据表明,在高LET(Linear Energy Transfer)处的两者抗辐射性能并无明显变化,但是低LET处(LET翻转阈值)的加固效果较为明显,即抗辐射技术能力主要体现在LET翻转阈值的提升而非翻转截面的减小。

Single event effects (SEEs) have been characterized and investigated on one-time configured devices for field-programmable-gate-arrays (FPGA) of programmable-read-only-memory (PROM) in 0.13 μm Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology.The variables of their memory size,written data and technology have been taken into consideration as the key parameters affecting the SEEs sensitivity when testing and verifying the reliability/radiation tolerance on self-made PROMs by heavy ions.The results show that,16 Mbits PROM within blanked data has been studied that it has better performance to radiation tolerance as compared with the 8 Mbits PROMs.Additionally,16 Mbits PROMs have the higher reliability,if based on the viewpoint of the saturated single event upset cross-section.To the single event latchup,16 Mbits PROMs were exposed to a total fluence of 107 ions/cm2 at the linear energy transfer (LET) of 99.0 MeV·cm2/mg and no obvious fluctuation of current has been observed.Additionally,as comparing the zone of high LET value,0.13 μm CMOS transistors with deep-well technology present a better radiation hardened approach than normal technology,especially in improving the threshold of LET at the zone of low LET value.
129Xeq+轰击N型和P型Si表面时的电子发射产额研究
曾利霞, 徐忠锋, 赵永涛, 吴帆, 刘学良, 程锐, 周贤明, 雷瑜, 刘世东, 张艳宁
2016, 33(3): 365-369. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.33.03.365
摘要:
在兰州重离子加速器国家实验室测量了1.8 MeV Xeq+离子分别轰击N型和P型Si两种靶材表面时的电子发射产额。实验中,通过改变入射离子的电荷态,研究了入射离子势能沉积对两种靶材表面电子发射产额的贡献。结果发现同一离子入射时,N型Si表面的电子发射产额高出P型Si表面的电子发射产额约12.5%;对于具有相同入射动能的Xeq+离子,两种靶材表面的电子发射产额均随着入射离子势能的增加而线性增加。此外,还测量了3.4 MeV Xeq+离子分别轰击以上两种靶材时的电子发射产额,得到了类似的结果。本文利用功函数分别从动能电子发射和势能电子发射两个角度对实验结果进行了分析讨论。

The electron emissions from N-type Si and P-type Si induced by 1.8 MeV 129Xeq+are measured in the National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou,The contribution to electron emission yield from potential energy of incident ions is studied through changing the charge state of incident ions.The results show that for the same incident ion,electron emission yield of N type Si surface is higher than that of P-type Si surface about 12.5%.For incident ions with the same kinetic energy,both electron emission yields of two targets increase linearly with incident ion energy.In addition,the electron emissions induced by 3.4 MeV 129Xeq+from N-type Si and P-type Si mentioned above are measured,which give similar results.The experimental results are analyzed and discussed using work function from two angles of the kinetic electron emission and the potential energy electron emission.
核能与核数据
利用GEANT4和FLUKA研究质子诱发散裂反应出射中子双微分截面
张苏雅拉吐, 罗飞, 陈志强, 特木尔巴根
2016, 33(3): 370-373. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.33.03.370
摘要:
在中高能质子诱发散裂反应相关核工程设计中,可靠的蒙特卡罗模拟程序结合核反应理论模型具有较好的理论指导意义。本工作中,利用GEANT4耦合INCL4和ABLA理论模型以及FLUKA耦合PEANUT模型模拟计算了几百MeV至几个GeV质子轰击Be,Al,Fe,W,U等靶后30°,60°,120°,150°出射角产生的散裂中子双微分截面,并与现有实验数据进行了比较。结果发现,FLUKA和GEANT4模拟计算较好地再现了Al,Fe,W,U等靶实验测量数据。然而,模拟结果明显低估了Be靶出射中子能量小于10 MeV能区的实验数据。

For the design of nuclear engineering related with medium-high energy proton induced spallation reaction,the reliable Monte Carlo simulation codes coupled with nuclear reaction models have a good theoretical guidance.In this work,the production spallation neutron double differential cross sections at 30°,60°,120°,150°emission angle for Be,Al,Fe,W,U target materials at incident proton energies between several hundred MeV and GeV are theoretically calculated by using the GEANT4 coupled INCL4 and ABLA,and the FLUKA coupled PEANUT.The calculated results were compared with the available experimental data.It is found that the GEANT4 and FLUKA calculations well reproduced the experimental measurement of Al,Fe,W,U target materials.However,calculations obviously underestimated the emission neutrons of Be target for lower than 10 MeV energy range.