2006年 第23卷 第1期
简要评述了在pA碰撞过程中K^±，η和Ф介子的阈下产生及其对应的物理含义。这些介子的阈下产生都可以在兰州CSR上实现，特别是通过pA碰撞实现士介子的阈下产生还没有看到实验数据的报道。K^±,η and Ф meson productions at subthreshold energies in pA collisions are briefly reviewed. These subthreshold meson productions can also be carried out at CSR in Lanzhou. Especially, experiments on Ф meson production near subthreshold energy in pA collisions should be performed in the future.
考虑非微扰量子色动力学物理真空夸克凝聚效应，计算了碳核与碳核在质心系能量分别为630和200GeV时碰撞Drell—Yan过程的K因子，以及加入核遮蔽因子后非微扰效应对K因子的影响，并把计算结果与没有考虑夸克凝聚非微扰效应的K值进行了对比。结果表明，非微扰效应和核遮蔽效应对K因子影响很小。Considering quark condensate contributions from the QCD vacuum, the non-perturbative effect on the K-factor is investigated for the C-C collision Drell-Yan process with and without nuclear shadowing respectively, at the center-of-mass energy √s= 630 and 200 GeV. Comparison of the results indicates that both the non-perturbative effect and the nuclear shadowing effect pose a weak influence on the K-factor.
结合工作，讨论了3个和4个全同粒子的状态数解析表达式与角动量耦合中的6j和9j系数的求和规则、单轨道中J级对力、核子系统的自旋和同位旋都确定的空间维数等核结构基本理论方面的新进展。 In this paper I would like to discuss the strategy in obtaining analytical formulas of number of spin I states of identical particles, and the relationship between dimension and sum rules for angular momentum couplings such as six-j and nine-j symbols. I shall also discuss the J-pairing interaction, number of states with spin I and isospin T, i. e. , number of states for nucleons in a single-j shell.
利用在束实验产生具有β^＋/EC衰变性质核素^176，178Ir，分析了在柬实验条件下获得的γ—γ符合数据，识别出了^176Os的4条新能级和13条新γ跃迁、^178Os的5条新能级和14条新γ跃迁。籍助氨喷嘴快速带传输系统，进一步对^176Ir的β’/EC衰变进行了测量，在确认在束测量新γ射线的同时建议了^176Ir的一个低自旋同核异能态。通过两准粒子耦舍的半经验计算，建议了^176，178Ir基态及同核异能态的组态。The γ rays following the β^＋/EC decay of ^176. 178Ir nuclei have been investigated using in-beam γ- ray experiment. A total of 4 new levels, 13 new γ transitions of ^176Os and 5 new levels, 14 new γ transitions of ^178Os were identified. In addition, with the aid of a helium-jet recoil fast tape transport system, the β^＋/EC decay of ^176Ir was further studied, the above new γ rays were proved and an isomer was proposed in ^176Ir. By the semiempirical calculations of two-quasiparticle intrinsic states of odd-odd nuclei, the configurations of ground states and isomeric states were also proposed for ^176, 178Ir
加速器质谱是近年来蓬勃发展的一种十分活跃的核分析技术，其应用涉及环境科学、地质学、核物理及天体物理、生物医学等多个领域。中国原子能科学研究院的加速器质谱装置自从1989年建立至今，已经对^36Cl，^10Be，^129I，^26Al，^79Se和^41Ca等多种核素进行了成功测量。介绍了中国原子能科学研究院的加速器质谱计系统、核素的测量原理及几种相关核素的成功应用。The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry facility at the China Institute of Atomic Energy was established in 1989. The measurement methods for interesting nuclides such as ^36Cl, ^10Be, ^129I, ^26Al, ^79Se and ^41Ca etc. have been established and studies on their applications have been carried out. The facility and some interesting applications are briefly introduced.
对X射线、γ射线、电子、中子、质子和重离子等对生物体系的辐照研究现状进行了评论。重离子辐照中特有的倒转深度剂量分布，即Bragg峰，成为放射治疗的理想工具。通过对重离子辐照生物组织物理过程的分析，提出了重离子与生物分子相互作用的三步物理过程，即核相互作用导致的核碎裂、库仑相互作用的电子激发和生物分子在周围环境相互作用下的弛豫，最终导致生物分子新结构的形成。由于物理过程是后期辐照化学过程、生物过程的基础，因此建立描述离子与生物分子相互作用物理过程的微观动力学理论是十分迫切的。The status of studying biology system therapy with X-rays, γ-rays, neutron, proton, and heavy ions is reviewed. The depth dose profile, called Bragg profile, makes heavy ion an ideal tool for radiotherapy. The physical process of therapy with heavy ions is analyzed and a 3-step interaction processes of heavy ions with biomolecules is proposed, that is, nuclear fragmentation in nuclear interaction, electron excitation in Coulomb interaction, and the biomolecules relaxation in surroundings, finally leads to a new structure of biomolecule. Since this physical process is the base of the following chemical process and biological process, a dynamical microscopic approach is strongly demanded to be built.
用Calyculin—A诱导的早熟染色体凝集技术研究了γ射线诱导人肝癌细胞株HepG2细胞G2期染色体的原初损伤。结果表明：G2等点染色单体断裂畸变与辐射剂量呈线性平方关系，G2染色单体断裂畸变和G2期染色单体断裂畸变总数与辐射剂量呈线性正相关关系，发生各类断裂畸变的细胞率与剂量也呈线性正相关关系。γ射线诱发的断裂畸变主要是G2染色单体断裂畸变，断裂畸变的细胞主要是发生G2染色单体断裂畸变。A chemically induced premature chromosome condensation technique with Calyculin-A has been employed to estimate the initial chromosome damage in HepG2 condensed in G2 phase and the percentage of aberrant cells after exposure to γ-rays. The results show that the dose-response for iso-chromatid breaks is linear-quadratic manner, while chromatid-type breaks and total chromatid breaks show a positive linear dose-response. The percent tages of all kinds of aberrant cells are increasing linearly with increasing doses. G2 chromatid-type breaks and the percentage of G2 chromatid-type aberrant cells are predominate in G2 total chromatid breaks induced b y γ-rays.
利用Monte Carlo方法，对14MeV中子引起存储器单粒子翻转过程进行了计算模拟，从而对引起单粒子翻转的关键因素——存储器灵敏区中的能量沉积进行了统计分析，为了解单粒子翻转随机过程提供了详细的能量沉积统计信息。The process of the single event upset induced by 14 MeV neutrons in SRAM silicon chip is simulated by using a Monte Carlo method. The deposited energies in sensitive volumes in the chip, which is an important factor in the single event upset, are statistically analysed. The statistic information about the deposited energies is provided for understanding the detailed random process of the single event upset.
核磁共振技术对核材料贮存环境的改善、核废料的长期安全管理具有非常重要的意义。在分析环境因素对铀、钚核材料贮存期间品质变化影响的基础上。探讨了核磁共振方法对核材料进行探测的技术，研究了核材料贮存中湿度的测量和水分子的迁移规律。Nuclear magnetic resonance（NMR） technology play an import role in improving nuclear material stockpile circumstances and long-term security management of nuclear waste materials. Based on analyzing the circumstance factor that influence the qualitative change of the nuclear material of uranium and plutonium during their stockpile, nuclear materials detection technology with NMR method was discussed, and at the same time, moisture measurement and the water molecule moving rule in nuclear materials during their stockpile were also studied with the same method in this paper.
重离子辐照的高分子有机膜，经过适当的处理，可以作为模板制备金属和可溶性盐纳米线，此方法称为离子径迹模板法。介绍了用电化学沉积方法和过饱和溶液法制备金属纳米线和可溶性盐纳米线的基本原理和制各实例，同时还展望了离子径迹模板法制备纳米线的一些可能的应用。The polymer foils irradiated by heavy ions can be used as temptates to prepai nanowires and some inorganic salt nanowires. It is called ＂ion-track template method＂. Compared to other templates, such as AAO template and porous silicon, etched ion-track template is more convenient and flexible. The density of the pores can be easily controlled by changing the ion fluences and the diameter of the pores can be altered through changing the etching condition. The pores of the etched ion-track template are well aligned. We present some examples of preparing metallic nanowires and inorganic salt wires by electrochemical deposition and by supersaturation solution method, respectively. We also introduce some applications of nanowires prepared with ion-track template method.
在星光Ⅱ激光装置上，测量了脉宽1ns、能量40-110J的527nm激光在不同条件下辐照Au盘靶、Al盘靶的背向散射能量。结果表明：激光辐照Au盘靶时．在聚焦条件下背向散射能量约占打靶激光能量的7．8％；在束匀滑条件下背向散射能量份额下降到6.2％左右，证明了束匀滑可有效抑制背向散射。对比Au盘靶、Al盘靶背反能量与打靶激光能量关系曲线，可以看出背向散射能量与打靶激光能量基本上成线性关系。 Au and Al disk target were irradiated with -1 ns, 40-110 J, 527 nm laser at Xingguang-Ⅱ facility. The backscattered lights by laser-produced plasma were studied experimentally. The results are in troduced in this paper. Backscattered light energy is 7.8% of laser energy when laser is focused on Au disk target; when laser beam is smoothed, it is 6.2%. The comparison shows that laser smoothing can restrain backscattered light efficiency. The experimental results ：also show that there is a linear relation between backscattered light energy and the laser energy.
在Monte Carlo方法模拟keV电子碰撞薄膜／厚衬底靶过程中，输入材料数据中采用的内壳层电离截面数据不同，得到的反映膜厚及村底对电离截面测量结果影响的修正因子值也有差别。讨论了Monte Carlo模拟得到的修正因子值受输入材料数据中内壳层电离截面影响的程度，并完成了入射keV电子在法拉第筒中逃逸率的估算工作。 The sensitivity of the correction factor, which describes the combined effect of finite film thickness and the thick substrate in the measurement of atomic inner-shell ionization cross-sections by low-energy electron impact, to the adopted ionization cross-sections in the Monte Carlo simulation is discussed. Moreover, the electron escape ratio from the Faraday cup in our experiment is also obtained by Monte Carlo method.
研制了一种用于同位素分离在线穆斯堡尔谱学的平行板雪崩计数器，计数器仅重40g。用它测量由穆斯堡尔共振吸收后放出的内转换电子，采用85％^119Sn同位素增丰的SnO2作为阴极吸收材料，测得的穆斯堡尔谱的信噪比为11，是一种适合在线穆斯堡尔实验的计数器。对该计数器的性能进行了讨论。A Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter （PPAC） with weighted about 40 g was developed for isotope separator on-line Moessbauer Spectroscopy. It detects the internal conversion electrons emitted from the resonance Moessbauer nuclide. The signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra reaches 11 for 85% enriched ^119SnO2 cathode and absorber. It is an effective detector for on-line Moessbauer experiments. The perform ance of the counter was discussed in detail.
对中子检测隐藏爆炸物技术的基本原理作了较详细的介绍，对几种不同的检测方法进行了比较，分析了当前国内外的研究现状，并指出了未来的发展方向。In this paper, several methods and basic principles of neutron detecting latent explosive are introduced and analyzed in details. The progresses in this field are reviewed and further development direction is also prospected.
介绍了近年来利用稳定同位素C和N以及放射性元素^7Be和^137Cs作为示踪元素应用在土壤侵蚀、水土流失研究中所取得的重要进展，讨论了电子束辐照和γ射线辐照在工业废水和废气处理的机理及其应用，说明了辐射技术在环境保护中具有重要的作用。The important progresses of studies on water loss and soil erosion using stable carbon, nitrogen isotopes and ^7Be, ^137Cs as tracers is introduced. The mechanisms and applications of the electron beam and y rays irradiation in industrial effluent disposal and tail gas treatment are discussed, which indicates the importances of the irradiation technology in environment protection.
简要介绍已广泛用于临床的^32P，^89Sr，^90Y，^103Pd，^125I，^131I，^137Cs，^153Sm，^186Re，^188Re，^192Ir和具有很大潜在使用可能性的^64Cu，^67Cu，^67Ga，^86Y，^105Rh，^111In，^114mIn，^124I，^149Pm，^166Ho，^169Yb，^177Lu，^211At，^213Bi，^225Ac 26个放射性核素利用反应堆或加速器或衰变的55种不同途径产生的核数据的测量、理论计算及数据可靠性的初步评价，以改善其在诊断和治疗医用中的安全性、有效性和科学性。The nuclear data measurements and preliminary evaluation as well as alculation for established and emerging 26 radionuclides produced in 55 ways by using reactor or accelerator or decay are briefly introduced in order to keep the safety and validity in medical therapeutic applications. The 11 established radionuclides are ^32P,^89Sr,^90Y,^103Pd,^125I,^131I,^137Cs,^153Sm,^186Re,^188Re,^192Ir and the 15 emerging radionuclides are 64Cu,^67Cu,^67Ga,^86Y,^105Rh,^111In,^114mIn,^124I,^149Pm,^166Ho,^169Yb,^177Lu,^211At,^213Bi,^225Ac.
论述了β^-衰变的能量和强度平衡的计算公式，并以^95Nb的β^-衰变为例说明其实际应用。 The calculation formulas of energy balance and intensity balance from β^- decays are presented here. The example of ^95Nb β^- decay is shown to illustrate its practical application.