2005年 第22卷 第3期
简要介绍了近几年发展起来的厚靶逆运动学弹性共振散射方法在非稳定核结构测量中的应用。它是研究非束缚态核结构的实验方法之一。通过测量反冲轻核的激发函数，提取共振态的能量、自旋宇称和衰变宽度等。主要用于研究非稳定核素的结构、核天体物理中相关核的阈能共振态的能级参数测量等。The method of elastic resonance scattering in inverse kinematics, which was progressed in recent years, is briefly introduced. It is a novel experimental technique to perform meaningful experiments under conditions of the very short-lived nuclides and the beam intensities only 1 000 atoms/s. The excitation function of recoil proton has been measured in experiment; the shape of proton energy spectrum can be also used to uniquely deter- mine the energy of resonant states, spin-parity, partial decay width and spectroscopic factors of the states. This method is mainly used in the investigation of unstable nuclei and the level parameters measurement of near threshold resonant state of the nuclear astrophysics related nuclei.
研究了奇质子核Lu和Ta同位素链h11/2质子9／2转动带旋称劈裂的系统规律，并与同一核区奇奇核的πh11/2×vi13/2两准粒子转动带低自旋区旋称劈裂规律进行了比较，指出奇质子Lu和Ta核三准粒子带的旋称反转很可能是来源于h11/2准质子和 i13/2准中子之间的相互作用。The systematic features of signature splitting of the h11/2 9/2 [ 514] rotational band in Lutetium and Tantalum isotope chains have been investigated and compared with that of πh11/2×vi13/2 2-quasiparticle band in oddodd nuclei of the same nuclear region. It is shown that signature inversion of 3-quasiparticle band of some odd- Z Lutetium and Tantalum nuclei most probably caused by the p-n interaction of h11/2 quasiproton and i13/2 quasineutron.
介绍了当前强子物理的研究现状和兰州冷却储存环的能量特点，以及国内强子物理专家的分析和建议。在兰州冷却储存环上，可利用中能轻离子束核反应产生强子激发态研究强子内部夸克态的结构和性质、强子性质随核环境的变化和手征对称破缺与部分恢复。尤其是通过兰州冷却储存环上限能区附近的P＋P反应，研究奇异夸克的不对称性和形状因子，寻找超子激发态和pentaquark的实验证据，发现双重子态的实验事例。 According to both the development on badrons physics and the aspect of Lanzhou cooling storage ring （CSR） and based on the analysis and propositions given by experts in China, we propose some hadrons physics program at CSR. The hadron spectroscopy produced in light nucleus collisions at CSR used to probe the quark and gluon structure of hadrons, to study the modification of the hadron properties in nuclear matter and to investigate the spontaneous breaking of the chiral symmetry and its partial restoration. Especially, the proton-proton collisions at beam energies per proton below 2.8 GeV at CSR should be used to measure the strangeness asymmetry and strange form lector, to probe the existence of hyperon and pentaquarks and to find the evidence for the existence of dibaryon.
为克服低能带电粒子核反应截面直接测量中所遇到的库仑位垒和电子屏蔽效应带来的困难，试用基于准自由反应机制的特洛伊木马方法，在意大利南部国家核物理实验室的15MV串列加速器上，通过^2H（^9Be，α^6Li）n核反应对^9Be（p，α）^6Li在低能区（Ecm=0-1000kev）的裸核反应截面做了间接测量，并将测量结果与直接测量数据进行了比较。The beryllium abundance acts as a key role for understanding the inhomogeneous Big Bang nucleosynthesis. In order to measure the ^9Be（p, α）^6Li bare nucleus cross section and S（E） factor at astrophysical energies, the Trojan Horse Method （THM） can be applied. The main feature of the method is that it allows to extract the energy dependence for the astrophysical S（E） factor of bare nuclei at very low energies without any extrapolation, by measuring the cross section of an appropriate three body process. Thus the ^9Be （p,α）^6Li has been studied by means of the THM applied to the ^2H（^9Be,α^6Li）n at INFN-LNS, Catania, Italy. The two body reaction cross section has been studied in the energy range of Ecm=0-1 000 keV. Preliminary results are discussed and a comparison with direct data is made.
利用西藏ASγ实验三期阵列的重建数据，对25个BATSEγ暴的TeV能区伴随γ暴进行了符合寻找。在BATSEγ暴方向的90％误差范围内，找出在给定的小天区和时间间隔内出现的显著性较高的TeV事例团，并采用“等天顶角方法”来估计背景。发现少量事例团对背景有明显超出，考虑试验次数后，其超出还不足以认定为γ暴。通过Monte Carlo模拟给出了95％置信水平下流强上限的估计值为7．1×10^-9photons／（cm^2·s）。Searching for TeV burst-like events coincident with the BATSE GRBs data was made by using the ASγ （Tibet-Ⅲ） data. In the period we analysed, there were 25 BATSE GRBs in the field view of Tibet. A search region was defined by the BATSE 90% confidence level positioning error. A GRB candidate was chosen as a shower cluster appearing in a given small sky window and a given time interval. An equi-zenith-angle method was used to estimate the background. No significant TeV GRBs were detected. The flux upper limit at the 95% confidence level was estimated to be about 7.1×10^-9 γ（cm^2·s） by Monte Carlo simulation.
详细论述了RFQ冷却聚束器相关的基本原理，简单介绍了国际上此方面的研究和我们的工作。The radiofrequency quadrupole （RFQ） cooler and buncher has been developed in many laboratories to improve the secondary radioactive ion beam quality. In this paper, the principles of the RFQ constraint, buffer gas cooling, axial electric field and Paul trap are discussed in detail. The studies around the world and our work are also briefly introduced.
简要介绍了在线同位素分离器的原理以及在奇异核β衰变核谱学中的应用。着重介绍了芬兰Jyv（ae）skyl（ae）大学的离子制导型在线同位素分离器，并对在该装置上开展的丰中子Ag同位素的β^-衰变研究进行了综述。Isotope Separator on Line is briefly introduced with emphasis on the basic concept and features related to the production of exotic nuclei and β decay spectroscopy. The Ion Guide Isotope Separator on Line （IGISOL）at the University of Jyv（ae）skyl（ae）, Finland is presented in detail with experimental results on the decay of neutron-rich silver isotopes produced in proton induced symmetric fission.
测量了Ti，Ni，Cu，Al以及Si的符合多普勒展宽谱。对于Ni的多普勒展宽谱，采用最小二乘法拟合得出其中的源强度。给出了源修正前后湮没量子在Si中的多普勒展宽谱，讨论了源成分的影响。用高斯-抛物线模型拟合多普勒展宽谱，将多普勒展宽谱中自由电子的湮没贡献和束缚电子的湮没贡献分开，进而探讨了只对束缚电子的湮没贡献做源修正的方法。In the present work, Coincidence Doppler Broadening （CDB） measurements have been performed for five elements i.e. Ti, Ni, Cu, Al and Si. As to the CDB spectra of Ni, we obtained the annihilation fraction of positron-electron pairs in the source by least square fitting. After source correction, spectra for Si are also given to indicate the influence of source components. CDB spectra were simulated with Gauss-Parabola model to separate annihilation contribution of core electrons from outermost electrons. Furthermore, a new source correction method, i.e. source correction will be done only in the contribution of core electron, has been presented
利用CFC-67型三通道γ源加速器测量了Ф50mm，Ф60mmPIN探测器的时间响应、线性电流及相对灵敏度，并与理论计算结果进行了比较，验证了实验结果的可靠性。Ф60 mm silicon PIN detector is a large area and high sensitive one which has been developed in near years. Using the type CГC-67 γ accelerator, the parameters of PIN detectors such as time response, linear current and relative sensitivity are measured. The experiment results are compared with the theory calculation. The PIN detector can reach high γefficiency of up to 10^-14-10^-16 C·cm2, the rise time is about 10 ns and the FWHM of the time pulse is about 35 ns. The γ efficiency of the PIN detector may provide the sensitive range between 10^-14-10^-16 C·cm^2 that scintillator ＋ photo tubes detecting system and scintillator ＋ photomul tiplier tubes detecting system is not developed.
介绍了静电加速器的结构以及调试中出现的离子源不放电、控制系统失灵和加速管破裂等技术问题，分析了出现这些问题的原因以及解决办法，调试出了流强为100μA、能量在3MeV以上的稳定质子流。The structure of electrostatic accelerator and some technical problems arising in development, including the RF ion source doesn＇ t produce discharge, the controlling system is out of order and the accelerating tube cracks et al. , are introduced; the reasons and the solving means of these problems are analyzed; a stable proton beam with 100 μA and 3 MeV is obtained.
应用早熟染色体凝集技术对人类正常肝脏细胞经γ射线照射导致的染色体损伤后48h内的动态修复过程进行了研究。结果显示：照射后原初染色单体断裂和等点染色单体断裂数随着照射剂量的增加而增多，染色单体断裂显著多于等点染色单体断裂；经过24h的继续培养，这两种类型的损伤都有不同程度的修复，约50％染色单体断裂得到修复，而等点染色单体断裂的修复率最多为15％；经过48h的照射后培养，染色体损伤的水平与24h相比没有显著差异。说明肝细胞经γ射线照射后染色体损伤的主要形式是染色单体断裂，易于修复；虽然等点染色单体断裂数量较少，但修复困难。由此表明，等点染色体断裂是细胞经γ射线照射后死亡和癌变的一个重要因素。We employed the prematurely chromosome condensation （PCC） technique to investigate the 48 h kinetic repair of normal human liver cell line L02 exposed to γ-rays. The results showed that chromatidtype and isochromatid-type breaks increased with the dose at 0 h measured by PCC, the number of chromatid-type breaks was several times more than that of isochromatid-type breaks. Further 24 h incubationafter exposed to irradiation, both of these two type breaks decreased in different extent, 50% for chromatid-type one, change of the the main type easy to repair. 15% for isochromatid-type one at most, respectively. chromosome breaks compared with that of 24th h（p〉 0. 05 of the chromosome breaks was chromatid-type after exposed 48th h, there was a slightly ）. These results revealed that to low LET rays, also, it was Though the isochromatid-type breaks was obvioously less than that of the chromatid-type one, it was difficult to repair. It implied that the isochromatid-type breaks was the important factor causing cell death and canceration when cells were exposed to irradiations.
由于临床治疗剂量对正常组织造成严重损伤，使得放疗存在一些不足。刚刚兴起的肿瘤基因治疗同样存在一些弊端，如对肿瘤组织缺乏特异性，治疗基因表达水平有限，有潜在的生物危险性等。在一定程度上，辐射靶向诱导自杀基因和p53基因及p53靶基因靶向基因治疗可弥补以上两种疗法的不足。该治疗方法不仅可以弥补单独放疗或单独基因治疗的不足，而且可在降低各自治疗剂量的基础上提高疗效。目前已有几种符合要求的表达载体进入临床试验。着重介绍了离子辐射介导自杀基因或p53基因及p53靶基因的辐射靶向基因治疗的研究进展。Radiotherapy has some disadvantages due to the severe side-effect on the normal tissues at a curative dose of ionizing radiation （IR）. Similarly, as a new developing approach, gene therapy also has some disadvantages, such as lack of specificity for tumors, limited expression of therapeutic gene, potential biological risk. To certain extent, above problems would be solved by the suicide genes or p53 gene and its target genes the rapies targeted by ionizing radiation. This strategy not only makes up the disadvantages from radiotherapy or gene therapy alone, but also promotes success rate on the base of lower dose. By present, there have been several vectors measuring up to be reaching clinical trials. This review focused on the development of the cancer gene therapy through suicide genes or p53 and its target genes mediated by IR.
近年来辐射免疫学作为一门新兴学科进展迅速，特别是在低剂量辐射兴奋效应研究方面有较大发展，同时重离子辐射生物效应的研究在治疗肿瘤方面也有了明显进步。综述了国内、外辐射免疫学的现况，其目的是寻找出一种综合疗法，从而达到既可以较好的治疗肿瘤，又对病人损伤较小的目的。Radiation immunology as a new subject has made a great progress in recent years, especially in the radiation hormesis. At the same time, the research of radiobiological effect on heavy ions has played an important role in the cancer therapy, especially on the radiation immunology of heavy ions in the outer space. In this review, we summaried the status and development of radiation-immunology, and try to find out some better ways which can increase efficient killing on tumours, but reduce the damages on normal tissues.
With the accomplishment of the human genome project, proteomics becomes a new snbject on the buildup of the whole proteins and their dynamic changes in cell emerges. Cancer is a kind of complex disease involved in multi-genes and proteins. Heavy ion therapy is all arising and potential radiation treatment nowadays. This paper reviews on the main methods and technology in proteomics-- two-dimensional gel electrophoresis （2-DE）,biological mass spectrometry, protein biochips, bioinformatics and its application on identification of cancer biomarkers, evaluation of curative effect on tumour and the mechanisms of turnout formation. This paper also presents some prospects on the application of proteomics in heavv ion therapy.
A testing wave function which includes a elastic coordinate coefficient is proposed for double electron atoms. A program which can solve three body prohlem with variational method is developed by using Matlab language. Ground state energies and analytic wave functions of N^5＋ and O^6＋ ious are obtained by using the program.
根据密度矩阵理论，导出了受激原子态P态密度矩阵元和P态退激辐射的光子密度矩阵元的Stokes参数，它们之间存在一种非常简单直接的关系，说明在电子-光子符合散射实验中，通过测量光子的Stokes参数，就可以描述受激P态电荷云分布和散射过程的动力学。According to the density matrix theory, the density matrix of photon emitted from excited atom P state and of P state were introdued in this paper. There were a simple direct relation between the two density matrices, which shows that the electron cloud shape of excited atomic state and scattering dynamics can be described through the observable Stokes parameters of photon in electron-photon coincidence experiment.