1998年 第15卷 第4期
简述了研究核物质液－气相变的理论计算及研究热核稳定性的二相平衡模型．讨论了相变的临界温度及其对核物质大小、不对称度及库仑相互作用的依赖性．比较了用各种核力或模型算得的热核极限温度及实验结果． A brief introduction of the theoretical studies of liquid gas phase transition in nuclear matter and a two phase equilibrium model for studying stability of hot nuclei is presented. The critical temperature of the phase transition and its dependence on size and asymmetry of nuclear matter and Coulomb interaction are discussed. The limiting temperatures of hot nuclei calculated with various nuclear forces or models and experimental results are compared.
从原子核有序到混沌相变的观点讨论原子核大变形的稳定性，从而对核裂变和某些核结构问题以新的理解． The Stability of a large deformed configuration of nuclei has been discussed from the point of view of interplay between order and chaos. A further understanding of fission dynamic and some problems on nuclear structure have been obtained.
介绍了测量热力学微正则系综中哈密顿动力学系统温度的一种新的动力学途径，即在各态历经性的假设下，温度可作为函数（Ｈ／‖Ｈ‖２）在能量面上的时间平均算出．这一方法不仅给出了确定温度的一种有效的计算途径，而且也提供了动力学系统理论和哈密顿系统的统计力学之间的内在联系． A new dynamical approach for measuring the temperature of a Hamiltonian dynamical system in the microcanonical ensemble of thermodynamics is presented. It shows that under the hypothesis of ergodicity the temperature can be computed as a time average of the function, ·(H/‖H‖ 2) , on the energy surface. This method not only yields an efficient computational approach for determining the temperature, but also provides an intrinsic link between dynamical system theory and the statistical...
回顾了热核研究的基本理论方法和液－气相变的研究历史，对近年有关研究的进展作了评述，指出了将来进一步研究的主要方向． The basic theoretical methods for investigating the hot nuclei and their multifragmentation are reviewed. After the history of the studies of the liquid gas phase transition is introduced briefly, the comments on its new advances are given. The main frontiers in the corresponding fields are pointed out as well.
介绍了在核子自由度占优势时原子核状态方程的一些知识，并对在饱和状态下直接研究和在重离子碰撞中间接研究原子核状态方程的情况做了评述． The knowledge of nuclear equation of state for which nucleonic effects are dominant is presented. The direct studies which close to the saturation state and the indirect studies involving heavy ion collisions on nuclear equation of state are reviewed.
评述了高激发核的激发能及核温度的测量方法，以及这些测量方法的可靠性．同时还根椐理论模拟的结果讨论了当前得到的核物质量热曲线中可能存在的问题，提出了进一步开展核物质量热曲线研究中温度测量的一些措施．The methods measuring excitation energies and temperature of highly excited nuclear matter and their reliability have been summarized. According to the research and simulation the measured caloric curve has been discussed and some suggestions for further investigation of nuclear temperature were pointed out.
从相对论ＢＵＵ理论出发，研究了１ＧｅＶ／ｕ能区重离子碰撞全局和局域平衡性质．研究结果表明，在该能区平均场对反应动力学过程仍有相当的作用；对有限核系统的反应动力学过程的时间演化的研究表明，有限核系统未能达到全局平衡，在中心区基本达到局域平衡．因而在该能区的重离子碰撞中引入完全热平衡概念时，需谨慎考虑．The equilibration in relativistic heavy ion collisions for systems 16 O+ 16 O, 40 Ca+ 40 La and 139 La+ 139 La is studied with RBUU theory. We have found that the mean field still plays a role in addition to the collision term in the equilibration process in relativistic heavy ion collisions at energy around 1 GeV/u. For finite systems, the systems do not reach complete equilibrium. But at the center zone, the local equilibrium is almost reached.
当前，人们对量子混沌系统的能谱统计性质的了解比对其波函数性质的了解多得多．通过研究哈密顿系统初始状态为相干量子状态时的传播性质、位置与动量的平均值随时间的演化及涨落的变化性质，将给出系统波函数及相空间分布的信息，并自然给出量子、经典的对应．从理论形式上给出了哈密顿系统状态的相干态表示． So far the statistical fluctuation property of the energy spectrum and its rigidity for quantum chaotic systems are known much more than the wave functions. The study of the propagating property of a quantum state of a Hamiltonian system with its initial state being a coherent state, the time evolution of the mean position and mean momentum, as well as the variation of the position and momentum fluctuation of the system will offer information about the wave function and the phase...
对中能重离子碰撞的两体关联输运理论、它的Ｈｉｅｒａｒｃｈｙ截断和守恒定律进行了研究．该理论包括了时间相关的平均场、两体关联和Ｐａｕｌｉ原理，并且时间相关的平均场和两体关联动力学之间在自洽耦合和非耦合两种情况下进行了数值计算和讨论．初步计算结果表明，两体关联输运理论能对重离子碰撞动力学过程进行合理的描述，总粒子数、总动量和总能量基本上守恒，从而表明该理论是一个很有发展前景的输运理论． The Two body Correlation Transport Theory (TBCTT), its several hierarchy truncations and conservation laws for intermediate energy heavy ion collision have been investigated. This approach contains time dependent mean field, two body correlation effects and Pauli principle, the self consistent coupling between time dependent mean field and two body correlation dynamics is emphasized and preserved in realistic numerical calculation by a set of coupled dynamical equations...
用微观动力学模型研究了中高能核反应中的热化．对８３０ＭｅＶｐ＋５６Ｆｅ和３５ＭｅＶ／ｕ４０Ｃａ＋４０Ｃａ反应的研究表明，反应系统基本上达到了统计热平衡．发现两核碰撞过程中存在明显的横向流． Thermalization in intermediate high energy reaction is studied by microscopic kinetic model. The calculations are carried out for reactions 830 MeV p+ 56 Fe and 40Ca ( E =35 MeV/u )+ 40Ca. The calculations show that the quasi equilibrium can be reached. It is found that there is an obvious transverse flow in the nucleus nucleus reaction process.
论述了晕核，尤其是质子晕核的特性及实验研究．探讨了放射性核引起的转移反应以及晕核的近库仑位垒熔合反应． The properties of halo nuclei, especially proton halo nuclei and their experimental researches have been reviewed. The transfer reactions induced by radioactive beams and near barrier fusion with halo nucleus are discussed.
简要叙述了高温转动核电偶极巨共振实验研究的历史和现状，并着重介绍了现存的一些问题及新的探索． The history and current status of the experimental study of giant dipole resonance in hot rotating nuclei has been reviewed.Some open problems and new development are stressed.