1997年 第14卷 第1期
评述了Ａ～１３０过渡区Ｉ、Ｘｅ、Ｃｓ和Ｂａ核的高自旋核结构研究．在这些核中观测到的极为丰富的核结构现象，如质子中子转排竞争、形状共存、带终结、带交叉延迟、Ｓｉｇｎａｔｕｒｅ反转和八极关联等与这些核的价质子、价中子都位于ｈ１１／２支壳及这些核易产生γ形变有关. The studies of high spins states of A ～130 transitional I,Xe,Cs and Ba nuclei are reviewed. The variety of nuclear structure, such as proton neutron alignment competition, shape coexistance, band termination, crossing delay, signature inversion, octupole correlation, etc. observed in these nuclei is closely related to that both the valence proton and neutron of these nuclei are located in the h 11/2 subsell and the nuclei are soft against the γ deformation.
简要叙述了该课题研究的现状，并从核裂变和巨形变结合的观点上，对中重核和重核中的巨形变态研究提出一些看法，以推动对这个课题的探讨 . The recent development on investigation of hyperdeformation is outlined. From point of view of combining hyperdeformation with nuclear fission, a discussion on approaches for studying hyperdeformation is given for pushing ahead with this research.
回顾了对远离β稳定线奇特核性质的理论研究现状，并用相对论平均场理论研究了远离β稳定线奇特核的性质．包括轻核的中子晕和质子晕、远离β稳定线核的壳效应和超重核的性质等.The present situation of studies on exotic nuclei far from the β stable line is simply reviewed and then the relativistic mean field study on these nuclei has been carried out. This includes studies on neutron halos and proton halos in light nuclei, on nuclear shell effects of nuclei far from the stability, and on the properties of superheavy nuclei.
评述了放射性核自身的特征和它引起的反应机制研究．论述了晕核、中子皮核、电磁断裂和软偶极共振以及放射性核所引起的弹性散射、转移反应和亚位垒融合等. The characteristic of the nuclei far from stability and the mechanism of the reactions induced by these nuclei are reviewed. The disscusion includes the structure beyond the dripline and examples of elastic and inelastic scattering,inverse kinematic and nuclear break up, and of subbarrier fusion using radioactive beams.
结合开展的工作，对放射性核束流引起的核反应总截面研究、放射性束流引起的熔合反应研究、放射性束流开展的天体物理核反应研究以及其它有关的核反应研究进行了评述，并对其可能的发展作了一些探讨 .The study of total nuclear reaction cross section, nuclear fusion reaction,nuclear reaction of astrophysics and related reactions induced by radioactive nuclear beam are reviewed in this paper. The future development of this field is discussed.
在重离子反应中，尽管统计涨落是很明显的，但是在以前的关于重离子全熔合反应的理论模型中未加考虑．本工作在经典轨道模型框架内，在运动方程中包括了Ｌａｎｇｅｖｉｎ无规力，采用Ｍｏｎｔｅ－Ｃａｒｌｏ轨道抽样方法计算了１００Ｍｏ＋１００Ｍｏ和８６Ｋｒ＋１２３Ｓｂ全熔合反应的几率，并且与实验值进行了比较.It is not considered in the previous theoretical models on the complete fusion reactions, though the statistical fluctuation is very obvious. In the present work in framework of the classical trajetory model the Langevin random force is included in the motion equations. The fusion probabilities for the 100 Mo+ 100 Mo和 86 Kr+ 123 Sb reactions are calculated by Monte Carlo sampling of trajectories. The calculated fusion probabilities are also compared with the...
采用一种仔细考虑了作用截面、表面弥散和形变效应的核碰撞几何，同时考虑到在每一次碰撞中领头质子损失能量，得到了高能ｐ－Ａｌ碰撞的横能分布，计算结果与２００ＧｅＶ／ｃｐ－Ａｌ、Ｃｕ及Ｕ碰撞的实验数据符合.In this paper, the nuclear collision geometry which was considered carefully in the interaction cross sections, surface effects and nuclear deformations is adopted. The energy loss of leading proton in each collision is considered. The transverse energy distributions in high energy p A collisions are obtained. The calculated results are in agreement with the experiment data of 200 GeV/ c p Al, Cu and U collisions.
为给兰州重离子加速器冷却储存环（ＨＩＲＦＬ－ＣＳＲ）注入放射性核束（ＲＩＢ）提供初始参数，及为ＣＳＲ上ＲＩＢ分离谱仪的物理设计提供依据，对最近几年发展起来的利用弹核碎裂（ＰＦ）、双消色散分离谱仪在线获取和分离所需ＲＩＢ的参数计算方法，进行了系统的总结；给设计中的ＣＳＲ－ＲＩＢ分离谱仪设定一组束流光学参数，在此基础上对一组具有代表性的反应道的部分参数进行了初步计算，并用ＧＡＮＩＬ发展的相关程序ＬＩＳＥ进行了验证．理论与实验均表明，在目前对ＰＦ反应机制尚不能精确描述的情况下，对ＲＩＢ产额的计算结果达到１～２数量级的精度；对ＲＩＢ横向发射度和动量散度的计算结果相对准确. The calculation of the parameters of RIB produced by the projectile fragmentation and separated by an achromatic spectrometer is firstly summarized. The calculation method to the RSPC(the RIB spectrometer between CSR main ring and the experimental ring) is then described. The final results of the yield, the energy spread and the transversal emittance of some typical RIB has been obtained.
布鲁克海文的Ｅ８２１是一个新的测量μ介子反常磁矩的高精度实验．要求达到的精度为０．３５ｐｐｍ，比ＣＥＲＮ的实验精度高２０倍．精度的提高将提供对ＴｅＶ质量范围虚粒子的敏感性及为发现标准模型以外新物理打开一个重要的窗口．同时Ｅ８２１的超高精度在技术及物理上提出了不寻常的挑战.A new measurement of the muon anomalous magnetic moment (BNL E821) aims to obtain a precision of 0.35 ppm which is 20 times higher than that of CERN measurement. This increase in precision will provied a sensitivity to virtual particles into the TeV mass range and open a substantial window for the discovery of new physics beyond the standard model. Meanwhile the ultahigh precision aimed for in the BNL experiment gives unusual challenges in physics and in technology.
核反应的Ｑ方程出发，讨论了Ｔ（ｄ，ｎ）４Ｈｅ反应出射中子能量的单色性问题，给出了在Ｔ（ｄ，ｎ）４Ｈｅ中子源上获得准单能中子的最佳出射角的计算方法.Based on the Q equation of nuclear reaction, the monochromaticity of neutron energy at different emitted angles in T(d,n) 4He reaction is discussed and the method of calculation the optimum emitted angle is given.
着重介绍加速器质谱计（ＡＭＳ）１４Ｃ断代方法，北京大学近三年来ＡＭＳ１４Ｃ断代工作，还介绍了夏商周断代工程及其ＡＭＳ１４Ｃ断代工作.The method of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14 C dating, some AMS 14 C dating work in Peking University during the recent three years and the project of Xia Shang Zhou chronology are introduced.
介绍了用１３Ｃ－三辛酸甘油酯为标记药物通过呼气实验诊断脂肪代谢疾病的方法，进而引出了用稳定同位素标记的类似药物来诊断同样疾病的研究．结果指出，两种方法是等效的，由于稳定同位素对人体无害，因而后者更有应用前景.The experiment in which 13 C trioctanoin was used as a labeled substrate to diagnose the disease about fat malabsorption was explained and followed by a research on the diagnosis of the same disease with 13 C substrate. Both of the experiments proved effective, moreover the latter would be better since the stable isotope is harmless.
简要地阐述了核能在当前世界和我国能源发展中的地位和作用，提出了在近１０～２０年内我国核能发展应遵循的原则和技术路线的建议.The position and role of nuclear energy in china’s energy sources development is briefly outlined and a proposal about strategic principles and technology line of china’s nuclear energy development in recent 10～20 years is put forward.
介绍了秦山３００ＭＷ核电机组全范围模拟机所达到的性能指标．通过分析该模拟机主要设计特点，包括核岛应用软件、主计算机和实时模拟技撑软件等，强调指出，其性能已超过了培训模拟机的要求，并对该模拟机的使用范围进行了探讨.The performance indicatrix of the full scope simulator for Qinshan 300 MW nuclear power unit is described. Main design characteristics of the simulator, including calculation models for its nuclear island, its computer and real time simulation support software, are introduced. Its performance is proved better than the requirement for use only in training operators and therefore, the fullscope simulator could be used for other studying.