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2017年  第34卷  第4期

王凯龙, 强赟华, 柳敏良, 周小红, 王建国, 郭松, 郑宽宽
2017, 34(4): 699-704. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.04.699

Isomerism of the high-spin yrast 21/2+ states of the N=51 isotones 91Zr, 93Mo and 95Ru has been investigated using the shell model calculations. It is found that the low-j πp1/2 is responsible for the only yrast trap in 93Mo. In addition, the relatively smaller 101+-121+ level spacing in 94Mo has been found by investigating the systematics of the 101+-121+ level structures in the N=52 isotones 92Zr, 94Mo and 96Ru. This result provides a supplementary argument to the origin of the 21/2+ yrast trap in 93Mo from the viewpoint of the similarity between the configurations of 101+-121+ states in 94Mo and those of 17/21+-21/21+ states in 93Mo.
陈治均, 张宁涛, 李奇特, 任晓堂, 唐晓东, 王新雨, 许金艳, 许世伟
2017, 34(4): 705-709. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.04.705
深垒下能区的12C+13C熔合截面测量对检验天体中熔合反应外推模型具有很重要的意义。目前在库仑位垒以下能区存在的各种测量结果,都利用了统计模型来修正得到熔合截面,但对于这些方法间的系统误差仍没有很好地研究。实验采用离线活度测量的方法,在Ec.m.=4.4~5.8 MeV能区内对12C+13C熔合截面进行测量。经Hauser-Feshbach统计模型对分支比的修正后,熔合总截面由24Na活度推导出。通过本实验数据与其它实验方法获得的数据进行比较,确定了统计模型的系统误差为14%。

The study of fusion reactions of 12C+13C at the deep sub-barrier energies is very important for the test of predictive power of the extrapolation models for nuclear reactions for astrophysics. Until now, all the measurements below Coulomb barrier energies have to use the statistical model calculations to estimate the branching ratios to deduce the total fusion cross sections. However, the systematic uncertainty induced by the calculated corrections has not been studied well. In this experiment, the fusion cross sections of 12C+13C have been measured using an offline activity measurement in the range of Ec.m.=4.4 to 5.8 MeV. The total fusion cross sections have been deduced from the 24Na activities after correcting the branching ratios estimated with the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. Through the comparison between our result and other data obtained with other methods, the systematic uncertainty of statistical model has been determined to be 14%.
云朝昂, 来小禹, 王兆军, 吕国梁
2017, 34(4): 710-717. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.04.710

The author demonstrates that how to understand the Glitches of solid pulsars in the starquake model. Glitch is the sudden spin-up during the normal spin-down process, which has been observed in many pulsars. The mechanism of Glitches is still a matter of debate because it depends on the unsolved problem that what is the nature of pulsars. One of the models of pulsars, the so-called solid quark-cluster stars, could not be ruled out by neither the astrophysics observations nor theoretical considerations. The Glitches of solid quarkcluster stars could naturally be the result of starqukes. During the spinning-down of the solid star, the strain energy develops until the stress reaches the critical value, then some parts of the star fragment, which would suddenly decrease the moment of inertia of the star, leading to the sudden increase of the rotation frequency that manifests as a Glitch. If the star has high mass or rotates slowly, the shrink of radius would happen during the starquake, leading to a huge amount of energy releasing which accounts for AXPs/SGRs. On the other hand, if the star rotates fast, only the oblateness of the star changes during the starquake, which would lead to negligible releasing of energy. This paper discusses the phenomenon of Glitches for solid quark-cluster stars, including the physical processes and consequences of starquakes, as well as the reasons for different energy releasing during Glitches. Further theoretical study combined with more observations about Glitches would be helpful for us to test the conjecture of sold quark-clusters.
戴宏凯, 陈旭荣, 符彦飙
2017, 34(4): 718-723. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.04.718
电子与原子核碰撞实验是通过中高能探针探测原子核结构的方法。本文提供了一个高Q2单举准弹性电子原子核散射截面的计算方法,此方法是基于核子-核子短程关联的经验公式与弱束缚近似下的氘核散射截面模型。在弱束缚近似下,氘核可以看成是由近似自由质子与中子组成,质子与中子的短程关联可以忽略,氘核结构函数可以写成质子与中子结构函数线性组合,从而可以得到氘核的散射截面。根据氘核散射截面以及短程关联的经验公式,可以得到考虑短程关联的原子核A > 2的散射截面。我们将计算得到的散射截面与已有的实验和及Bosted拟合方法的结果比较,发现本文的方法在大xQ2 > 2 GeV2区域得到的结果与实验结果符合得较好并且对于一些重原子核,尤其是4He核,明显优于Bosted方法的结果。

The electron nucleus collision experiments are approaches measuring the structure of nuclei by using intermediate and high energy probe. This paper shows a calculation method of inclusive electron nucleus quasielastic scattering cross section at high Q2 which based on a empirical formula of Nucleon-Nucleon Short Range Correlation (NN-SRC) and a model of electron deuteron quasi-elastic cross section in Weak-Binding Approximation (WBA). In WBA, the deuteron can be regarded as the combination of quasi-free proton and neutron and the short range correlation between them can be ignored. Therefore the structure function of deuteron can be written as the linear combination of that of proton and neutron, then one can get the cross section of deuteron. According to the cross section of deuteron and the empirical formula, one can obtain the cross section of nuclei A > 2 which considers NN-SRC effect. We compare our calculation results with existing experiments and the results calculated by Bosted' fit method, then find that our results match the experiments at high x and Q2 > 2 GeV2 and better significantly than the Bosted's results for some heavier nucleus, especially 4He.
徐思琦, 张登红, 曹须
2017, 34(4): 724-729. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.04.724

In anlogous to hadron, electron has similar structure because of dressing. So we can define the Transverse Momentum Distribution functions (TMD), the General Parton Distribution functions (GPD) and General Transverse Momentum Distribution functions (GTMD) of electron which come from the Wigner distribution function. The GTMD contain the information of momentum and position of parton in one particle, and the GPD or TMD can be calculated by integration of transverse momentum or setting the transverse transfer momentum which equal to zero. We introduce the light-front wave function of electron to calculate the GTMD of dressed electron, and then get the TMD and GPD. Our results are verified by comparing to calculations in literature and the contribution of GPD of P-wave and S-wave. And we show that the distribution functions at different transverse momentum transfer, transverse momentum of parton and the fraction of longitudinal momentum.
刘明, 柴伟平, 杨建成, 阮爽, 刘杰, 姚丽萍
2017, 34(4): 730-734. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.04.730
国家"十二五"工程将在哈尔滨工业大学建造一台空间辐射地面模拟装置(SESRI),该装置能够模拟空间辐照环境,对研究离子辐照材料、生命体等具有重要意义。SESRI主要由双ECR离子源,直线注入器,同步环和3个高能实验终端组成。周长为43.9 m的同步环作为装置的核心部分,能够向3个实验终端输送离子种类多、能量范围广的粒子束。为了保证环内有足够的粒子数,注入系统的设计至关重要,SESRI同步环采用多圈注入方案,并利用ACCSIM程序模拟粒子真实运动情况。结果表明,粒子的注入效率为85.5%,离子数增益可达17.1,可满足设计要求。

Space Environment Simulation and Research Infrastructure (SESRI), which is one of the large-scale scientific projects proposed in National Twelfth Five-Year Plan of China, will be constructed in Harbin Institution of Technology. The SESRI project dedicated to space radiation consists of two ECR ion sources, a high intensity ion linac, a synchrotron and 3 research terminals. As the key part of the complex, a 43.9 m synchrotron can provide broadest energy range and variable ion beam for each terminal. To obtain required intensity in the synchrotron, the injection system is significant. A multi-turn injection scheme is adopted in the synchrotron and the injection process is simulated by ACCSIM with multi-particle tracking method. The results show that the injection efficiency and intensity gain factor can reach 85.5% and 17.1 respectively. The multi-turn injection system can meet the design requirement.
尹彬, 李德民, 杨建成, 盛丽娜, 张小虎
2017, 34(4): 735-739. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.04.735
为了更深入地研究核子性质,中国科学院近代物理研究所将在强流重离子加速器装置(HIAF)上利用极化质子束开展实验。HIAF增强器BRing能够提供最大能量9.3 GeV/u的极化质子束,在加速过程中极化束流会遇到多次退极化共振,需要特殊设计才能使束流保持较高的极化度。利用退极化共振强度模拟程序DEPOL,研究了BRing加速过程中不同退极化共振对束流极化度的影响。结果表明,加速过程遇到的两种退极化共振将会使束流完全退极化;在BRing电子冷却段加入Full Siberian Snake可以使质子束在加速时保持较高的极化度。

In order to explore the nucleon properties in details, the polarized proton will be used for some special experiments at HIAF project in Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMP,CAS). The maximum energy of 9.3 GeV/u for Polarized protons will be provided in the Booster Ring(BRing) at HIAF. The polarized beam experiences depolarizing resonances many times during acceleration process, so it's necessary to suppress those resonances to keep polarizability well by special design. In this paper, the code DEPOL is used to simulate the influence of depolarizing resonances process in BRing. According to the results, the beam's polarization has been destroyed completely by the depolarizing resonances in the acceleration process. And the Full Siberian Snake is chosen in the Electron Cooler part of BRing to preserve the beam's polarization during the acceleration, and its strength and location of the Siberian Snake are also presented here.
王嘉琛, 李朋, 杨建成, 柴振, 蒙峻, 吴波
2017, 34(4): 740-744. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.04.740
放射性次级束流分离器是强流重离子加速器装置中,连接增强器和高精度环形谱仪的束流输运线,用于传输重离子束流以及放射性次级束流。为了满足束流传输的要求,并维持相连增强器和高精度环形谱仪的极高真空,放射性次级束流分离器真空系统的平均压强应低于5×10-7 Pa。因此,需要验证真空系统设计方案的可行性,以及设计方案能否满足要求的压强范围。通过现有的同步储存环CSRm中的真空计监测数据以及软件BOLIDE的模拟结果对比,对真空压力计算软件VAKTRAK的使用方法和计算结果进行验证;采用VAKTRAK模拟计算不同真空参数下(流导、出气率以及泵速)放射性次级束流分离器真空系统的压力分布。根据计算结果,放射性次级束流分离器真空系统的平均压强可以达到1.79×10-7 Pa (H2),满足物理实验和工程设计的要求。通过模拟计算结果,放射性次级束流分离器真空系统的设计方案的可行性得到验证,系统设计的真空度满足要求。

HIAF Fragment Separator(HFRS) is connected with Booster Ring(BRing) and Spectrometer Ring (SRing) in the HIAF and used to transfer the ion beams and radioactive secondary beams. To satisfy the requirements of beam transmission and maintain the extremely high vacuum of BRing and SRing, the average pressure of HFRS vacuum system should be lower than 5×10-7 Pa. Therefore, the feasibility of the design scheme and whether the design scheme would fulfill the required vacuum range or not should be verified. Based on the measured data on the current sychrontron CSRm and the simulation results of BOLIDE, the calculation results of VAKTRAK are verified and then VAKTRAK is used to calculate the pressure profiles of different parameters(such as the conductance, out-gassing and pumping speed) for HFRS. According to the calculation results, the average pressure of HFRS vacuum system could be 1.79×10-7(H2) which achieves the required pressure for physics experiments and engineering design. According the calculation results of this paper, the feasibility of the designed HFRS vacuum system has been verified and the design of system satisfies the vacuum requirements.
郑墁煜, 曹平, 安琪
2017, 34(4): 745-754. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.04.745
随着高速波形数字化技术在核与粒子物理实验中的广泛应用,其对于ADC速度和精度需求日益增大,从而使电子学系统的PCB布局布线更加复杂、成本更高。为了简化设计,降低成本,提出了用于波形数字化的JESD204B的高速接口设计方法,介绍了JESD204B接口的协议及需求,并提出了基于Altera FPGA和专用JESD204B时钟芯片LMK0482x的具体解决方案。测试结果表明,时钟性能优异且JESD204B链路功能正常,系统性能优异,该方法可以实现JESD204B高速接口设计,并应用于波形数字化技术。

At present, due to the wide application of nuclear and particle physics experiments in the waveform digitization technology and the increasing demand of high speed and high accuracy for ADC, the PCB layout is more and more complex and the cost is higher. In order to simplify the design and reduce the cost, this paper put forward the scheme of JESD204B high speed interface for the waveform digitization technology in nuclear and particle physics experiments. Firstly the interface protocol and the demand of JESD204B is introduced. Then the solution based on Altera FPGA and special JESD204B clock chip LMK0482x is proposed. The preliminary test results show that the clock performance is excellent and JESD204B link is functioning normally. Moreover, the system has an excellent performance. The scheme can realize the design of JESD204B high speed interface and therefore be applied to the waveform digitization technology.
鲁一鸣, 赵雷, 秦家军, 邓佩佩, 刘树彬, 安琪
2017, 34(4): 755-761. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.04.755
基于开关电容阵列(SCA)技术可以实现超高速的波形数字化。本研究是基于实验室设计完成的FEL_SCA芯片进行8通道2 Gsps的波形数字化模块的设计,电路的配置和读出控制功能集成在单个FPGA中完成,此外该模块还包含SDRAM缓存及USB接口。目前已在实验室环境下对其进行了直流电压测试、瞬态波形测试和带宽测试,测试结果表明,在FEL_SCA芯片的输入动态范围100 mV~1 V之间,本波形数字化模块的INL好于1%,通道的RMS噪声约为1.76 mV,带宽约为450 MHz,达到设计目标。

Switched Capacitor Arrays (SCAs) can be employed to achieve high speed waveform digitization. In this paper, we designed an 8-channel 2 Gsps waveform digitization module using four SCA chips named FEL_SCA which was designed in our laboratory. In this module, we used a FPGA device for data readout and circuit configuration. Besides, a 128 Mb SDRAM and USB interface were integrated in this module. We have also conducted DC voltage tests, transient tests and bandwidth tests on this module. The results indicate that in the signal voltage range 100 mV~1 V, the INL is better than 1%, the RMS noise is about 1.76 mV and the -3 dB input bandwidth is 450 MHz.
张杰, 王俊润, 张宇, 黄智武, 马占文, 李建一, 韦峥, 卢小龙, 徐大鹏, 姚泽恩
2017, 34(4): 762-767. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.04.762
中子照相是一种重要的无损检测技术,它能用于火工产品、毒品和核燃料元件等的检测。基于紧凑型D-T中子发生器,完成了一个用于快中子照相的准直屏蔽体系统(BSA)的物理设计。根据D-T中子源的能谱和角分布建立了中子源模型,采用MCNP4C蒙特卡罗程序,模拟了准直屏蔽体系统中中子和γ射线的输运,准直中子束相对于单位源中子的中子注量可以达到9.30×10-6 cm-2,准直中子束中主要是能量大于10 MeV的快中子;在设置的样品平面直径14 cm的照射视野范围,准直束中子注量的不均匀度为4.30%,准直束中中子注量与γ注量的比值为17.20,中子通量和中子注量比值J/Φ为0.992,说明准直中子束有好的平行性;准直屏蔽体外的泄露中子注量率与准直束中子注量率相比降低了2个量级。所设计的准直屏蔽体能满足快中子照相的要求。

Neutron radiography is an important nondestructive testing technique. It can be used to detect the explosive devices, drug and the nuclear fuel element, etc. A beam-shaping-assembly (BSA) based on a compact D-T neutron generator is designed for fast neutron radiography in this paper. D-T neutron source model is constructed based on the neutron energy spectrum and angular distribution data. The transportation of neutron and γ-ray in the BSA is simulated using MCNP4C code. The neutron fluence of the collimated neutron beam with respect to the neutron source of the unit source is 9.30×10-6 cm-2. The collimated neutron beams is mainly fast neutrons with energies greater than 10 MeV. In the irradiation field range with a diameter of 14 cm, the neutron fluence uniformity of the collimated beam is 4.3%, the ratio of the neutron fluence to the gamma fluence in the collimated beam is 17.20, and the neutron flux and the neutron fluence ratio (J/Φ) is 0.992 which indicates that the collimated neutron beam has good parallelism. The leakage neutron fluence in outside of BSA is two orders of magnitude lower than that of the collimated neutron beam. The designed BSA can meet the need of fast neutron radiography.
周远杰, 马朋, 王建松, 段利敏, 杨贺润, 胡荣江, 鲁辰桂, 张俊伟, 肖志刚, 王仁生, 张嫣, 黄艳, 吕黎明, 程文静, 易晗
2017, 34(4): 768-772. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.04.768
中国科学院近代物理研究所气体探测器组研制了一种大型位置灵敏的平行板雪崩计数器(PPAC)。它主要由中心阴极和XY位置阳极构成,灵敏面积为244 mm×284 mm,阴极为双面镀金1.5 μm厚的Mylar膜,阳极为直径20 μm,间距1 mm的镀金钨丝。位置读出选用延迟块读出法。这种探测器经测试在灵敏面积内位置分辨小于4 mm,时间分辨为0.42 ns,已在兰州放射性束流线(RIBLL)上清华大学的核反应实验中使用。该实验中使用了主束40Ar直接轰击Au靶,产生裂变碎片,使用了4个这种大型位置灵敏的PPAC,用来探测裂变碎片的飞行时间和速度,实验表明,PPAC对裂变碎片有90.3%的效率,给出了裂变碎片的位置分布,为理论分析工作提供了非常好的实验数据。

A kind of large position sensitive parallel plate avalanche counter(PPAC) was developed at Gas Detector Research Group, Institute of Modern Physics of CAS. Each of the detector with large sensitive area of 244 mm×284 mm, consists of one central cathode, X anode and Y anode. The cathode plane in the middle of detector is a 1.5 μm thick Mylar foil coated with a thin Au-layer on both sides. The position resolution of the PPAC is better than 4 mm, and the time resolution is 0.42 ns. The detectors were used in the fission experiment with 30MeV/u 40Ar beam bombarding on a gold target to measure the velocity of the fission fragments at Radioactive Ion Beam Line In Lanzhou(RIBLL). Four PPACs were used and the experiment result showed that a rather high detection efficiency (90.3%) is achieved. The position distribution of fission fragments is given by PPACs, which provides very good experimental data for further theoretical analysis.
谢宏明, 武军霞, 冒立军, 叶民友, 张雍, 朱光宇, 马小明, 薛纵横, 景龙, 魏源, 杜泽
2017, 34(4): 773-778. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.04.773
兰州重离子加速器冷却储存环主环(CSRm)上成功应用了一种剩余气体电离剖面探测器(IPM),这种新型非拦截式剖面探测器的应用服役对CSRm的束流冷却研究及常规调束的实时剖面监测具有重要意义。IPM探测器通过收集束流与剩余气体之间的电离产物(气体离子或电子),利用偏转静电场将电离产物加速至多重微通道板(MCP),并在其上进行电子放大,放大的信号电子随后在荧光屏(P46等)上进行电子-光子转换,最终含有束流剖面信息的投影光子被真空靶室外的CCD相机获取。在正式应用于CSRm之前,IPM探测器还在分离扇回旋加速器直线(SSC Linac)上进行了束流实验,并与传统单丝扫描剖面探测器进行了对比。IPM探测器与单丝刮束器的剖面测量结果相近,并且具有较好的信噪比和约60 μm的较高空间分辨率。这种IPM探测器可以利用电阻串联进行均匀分压,较便捷地应用于真空度较低的直线加速器,还可以改造为分离电极单独供压的结构,应用在超高真空需要烘烤的环形加速器。最后还介绍了一种全新紧凑型结构的IPM探测器设计,该设计利用一套IPM探测器实现束流横向水平与垂直两个方向的剖面测量功能,这种紧凑型IPM结构尤其在空间紧缺型的强流直线加速器上具有重大的应用价值。

A new non-intercepting beam profile monitor, residual gas Ionization Profile Monitor (IPM), has been developed and tested at the main Cooling Storage Ring of Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL-CSRm). It has been successfully used for studies of electron cooling mechanisms, as well as profile monitoring under normal-mode operation in HIRFL-CSRm. The IPM measures the distribution of ions resulting from the residual gas ionization during the beam passage. The gas ions are collected and multiplied by tandem-type MCPs and a phosphor screen, and eventually captured by a commercial CCD camera outside the vacuum chamber. Before formally applied in HIRFL-CSRm, the IPM was tested and compared with a conventional wire scanner profile monitor at Sector Separated Cyclotron Linac (SSC Linac). Both results show good agreement. Besides, the IPM has higher signal to noise ratio than the wire scanner. It also has a very high spatial resolution of around 60 μm. This monitor can be used for low vacuum like Linac with resistance for bias voltage, or for ultra-high vacuum with discrete electrodes for bias voltage where the bakeout process is essential. Furthermore, a novel and compact design of one IPM with capability of detecting both horizontal and vertical profile is proposed. This compact IPM is quite suitable for non-invasive profile diagnostics at space shortage and high-current Linac.
李成波, 李晓明
2017, 34(4): 779-783. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.04.779
低能离子注入育种作为一种有效的育种方法在实践中进行了大量的尝试并取得了一系列重要成果,但其作用机理一直都存在着巨大的争议,特别是射程很短的低能重离子如何穿透到种子内部触发生物效应。本研究利用SRIM、CASINO、Geant4模拟程序对低能离子注入生物样品的离子注入深度进行模拟和定量分析,并对次级粒子可能产生的影响进行了定量模拟研究。结果显示,低能重离子本身射程一般都小于1 μm,选用轻离子、提高注入能量、采用干种子进行注入,都有利于增加穿透深度。次级过程中,反冲质子的最大射程比初级入射离子的稍大,不能显著提升穿透能力。次级过程产生的粒子中只有X射线可以明显提高穿透种子的深度,只要剂量足够大,总会有少量X射线穿透到很深的地方。

The breeding method by low-energy ion implantation has been proved to be a valuable breeding method by a large number of practical attempts, but the mechanism of the method has always been in a large dispute. The most difficult thing to be understood is how the low energy heavy ion with such a short range (normally shorter than 1 μm) can penetrate into the inner part of seeds to trigger the biological effects. In this paper, simulations with quantitative analysis were performed for the low energy ion implantating into biological samples and the effects caused by the secondary particles using SRIM, CASINO and Geant4 simulation programs. The results showed that the ranges of low energy heavy ions are normally less than 1 μm. The ranges can become longer if dry seeds and light ions are used with a higher energy. The ranges of recoil protons are only a little longer than that of the primary ions. Among the secondary particles produced in the ion implanting process, only the X-ray can obviously increase the penetration depth in seeds. There always will be a small amount of X-rays which can penetrate into the deeper place in the seed if the ion dose is high enough.
戴天缘, 李强, 陈卫强, 刘新国, 戴中颖
2017, 34(4): 784-789. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.04.784
应用碳离子束进行大分割放射治疗从而缩短治疗周期是碳离子束治疗的优势之一。为研究大分割放疗增加单次照射剂量后,碳离子束相对生物学效应(RBE)的变化,应用细胞存活线性平方(LQ)模型推导出RBE与剂量的依赖关系。基于此关系研究了具有不同辐射敏感性的肿瘤细胞和正常组织细胞RBE随剂量的变化。结果表明,在0~20 Gy范围内,不论肿瘤细胞与正常组织细胞具有怎样的辐射敏感性,肿瘤细胞的RBE值始终大于正常组织细胞。此外,基于理论推导和对相关实验数据的分析,证实了RBE随剂量增加而递增现象的存在。这些结果对应用碳离子束进行大分割放射治疗具有重要的指导作用。

Short treatment course due to the suitability of hypofractionated regimen for carbon ion beam is one of the advantages of carbon ion radiotherapy. To study the dependence of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) on dose, the relationship between RBE and dose was deduced through the linear-quadratic (LQ) model. Based on the relationship, the change of RBE of tumor cells and normal tissue cells with different radiosensitivities with dose was studied. The results showed that the RBE value of tumor cells was always greater than that of normal tissue cells in the dose range of 0~20 Gy, regardless of the radiosensitivity of tumor and normal tissue cells. In addition, based on theoretical deduction and analysis of the relevant experimental data, the existence of RBE increase with increasing dose was verified. These results are of great significance for conducting hypofractionated radiotherapy with carbon ion beam.
张凤秋, 黄青
2017, 34(4): 790-796. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.04.790
组蛋白乙酰化是表观遗传修饰的一种重要方式。肿瘤细胞的组蛋白大部分呈现低乙酰化状态,而组蛋白去乙酰化酶抑制剂(histone deacetylase inhibitor,HDACi)可以增加肿瘤细胞的乙酰化水平,诱导细胞周期阻滞及凋亡。曲古菌素A (trichostatin A,TSA)是组蛋白去乙酰化酶抑制剂的代表药物之一,能够提高肿瘤细胞组蛋白和非组蛋白的乙酰化水平。傅里叶变换红外(Fourier Transform Infrared,FTIR)光谱可以对无染色、无标记的生物样品进行无损检测,具有特征性明显、快速、分辨率高、重复性好等优点,已被广泛用于细胞的微观生物过程的研究。本文利用红外光谱技术结合免疫荧光技术的手段,研究TSA处理细胞后的乙酰化作用效果,发现红外光谱中甲基与亚甲基的伸缩振动强度之比能够表征细胞内的乙酰化水平变化,然后基于红外光谱的分析结果预测了乙酰化状态不同的细胞辐射敏感性的变化。结果表明,乙酰化细胞的辐射损伤效应可以通过甲基与亚甲基的伸缩振动强度之比进行评价,且该比值与细胞的辐射敏感性呈正相关,表明红外光谱技术可以辅助预测细胞的辐射敏感性,并进行细胞表观遗传学特征与辐射效应关系的研究。

Histone acetylation is one of important epigenetic modifications, and histone in most of tumor cells shows low acetylation state. However, histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) can correct abnormal acetylation status, induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Trichostatin A (TSA) is one of the representatives of histone deacetylase inhibitors, which can inhibit histone deacetylase, increase the acetylation level of histone and nonhistone in cell. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a powerful analytical tool which can detect nondestructively, quatitatively and quantitatively biological samples without bio-tagging and bio-labeling. FTIR spectroscopy technology has multiple advantages, including finger-print characteristics, rapid analysis, high resolution and good repeatability. Therefore, it has been widely used in the research of biological processes. This work applied FTIR spectroscopy to study the changes in cells treated with TSA, compared the acetylation level according to FTIR intensity ratio of methyl to methylene stretching vibration, and based on the FTIR analysis predicted the radiosensitivity of the cells with different acetylation levels. As a result, we have verified that the damage caused by radiation in acetylated cells can be evaluated by the ratio of methyl and methylene intensity which is positively correlated with cellular radiosensitivity. Therefore, this work demonstrates that FTIR spectroscopy can be useful for the prediction of radiosensitivity and may also open a door for the study of relationship between epigenetics and radiation bio-effects.
马斌博, 王转子, 魏巍, 党秉荣, 李文建
2017, 34(4): 797-802. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.04.797
本研究旨在探讨羧甲基-β-1,3葡聚糖(CMG)对人肝癌HepG2细胞X射线或12C6+离子束辐射敏感性的影响。首先用CCK-8法检测CMG对HepG2细胞的生长抑制情况,得到半数抑制浓度(IC50)为120.6μg/mL。用浓度为0.1×IC50的CMG预处理HepG2细胞24 h,再给予2 Gy X射线或12C6+离子束辐照(CMG+辐照组);CMG未处理组直接接受2 Gy X射线或12C6+离子束辐照(辐照组)。对比分析辐照组和CMG+辐照组细胞的克隆存活、DNA损伤、凋亡与周期分布、细胞内活性氧(ROS)水平。发现:与X射线辐照组相比,相同剂量的12C6+离子辐照组克隆存活率更小,DNA损伤和周期阻滞更加严重,细胞凋亡率和细胞内ROS水平也更高。与单独X射线或12C6+离子束辐照组相比,CMG+辐照组克隆存活率明显降低,细胞凋亡率随辐照后CMG作用时间的延长而明显增加,CMG使辐照后细胞内ROS维持在一个较高的水平,同时CMG明显加重了单独辐照诱导的DNA损伤和周期阻滞。结果表明,与X射线相比,HepG2细胞对相同剂量的12C6+离子辐射更敏感;CMG可增加HepG2细胞对X射线或12C6+离子辐射的敏感性;CMG可能通过增加受照HepG2细胞内的ROS水平,加剧辐照诱导的DNA损伤,促进辐射诱导细胞凋亡而起到辐射增敏作用。

This study aims to investigate the effect of carboxymethy-β-1, 3-glucan (CMG) on the sensitivity of human hepatoma HepG2 cells to X-rays or 12C6+ ions irradiation. First, the inhibitory effect of CMG on the growth of HepG2 cells was detected by CCK-8 assay, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 120.6 μg/mL. HepG2 cells were pretreated with CMG at a concentration of 0.1×IC50 for 24 h and then irradiated with 2 Gy X-ray or 12C6+ ion beams (CMG + irradiation group). CMG untreated group was directly irradiated by 2 Gy X-rays or 12C6+ ions beam (irradiation group). The clone survival, DNA damage, cell apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in irradiation group and CMG + irradiation group were comparatively analyzed. The results showed that the clone survival rate was lower, DNA damage and cycle arrest were more serious, and the rate of apoptosis and intracellular ROS levels were higher in 12C6+ ions irradiation group than those in the same dose of X-rays irradiation group. Compared with X-rays or 12C6+ ions irradiation group, the clone survival rate of CMG + irradiation group was significantly decreased, and the apoptosis rate significantly increased with the prolongation of CMG treatment post-irradiation; CMG maintained intracellular ROS at a higher level after irradiation, CMG also significantly aggravated radiation-induced DNA damage and cycle arrest. These results indicated that HepG2 cells were more sensitive to 12C6+ ions radiation than those at the same dose of X-rays. CMG increased the sensitivity of HepG2 cells to X-rays or 12C6+ ions irradiation by increasing intracellular ROS level, exacerbating radiation-induced DNA damage and promoting radiation-induced apoptosis in irradiated HepG2 cells.
2017, 34(4): 803-810. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.04.803

Because of the similarity in cascade damage structure in materials produced by energetic heavy ions and by fast neutrons, and the high displacement rate and low induced radioactivity of samples by heavy ions, heavy ion beam becomes an important tool to simulate radiation damage by energetic neutrons in materials in advanced nuclear energy systems. The ranges of heavy ions provided by HIRFL (Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou) are generally much larger than the mean dimensions of grains in alloys candidate to advanced nuclear reactors, and is capable of producing radiation damage in bulk scale. It therefore makes possible the evaluation of change of mechanical properties including the radiation induced embrittlement from the irradiated specimens by using miniaturized specimen techniques. In the present paper, we provide an introduction of our recent studies of radiation damage of materials candidate to future fusion reactors by utilizing heavy ion beams in HIRFL.The studies include issues as follows:ductility loss of RAFM steels causes by high-energy Ne ions, impact of oxide dispersoids on the radiation resistance of ODS ferritic steels, correlation of void swelling of ferritic/martensitic steels under different particle irradiation, and behavior of deuterium retention in tungsten under irradiation with high-energy heavy ions. The results show that high-energy heavy ions can be used as a tool to efficiently investigate or evaluate radiation damage in structure materials if combined with some special test techniques and data analysis.
陈晓旭, 孙爱民, 宋银, 张崇宏, 杨义涛
2017, 34(4): 811-814. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.04.811

The Misconstructural damage of GaP irradiated with 56Fe13+ to fluences ranging from 1×107 ions/cm2~1×1010 ions/cm2 were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The result shows that, with the increase of irradiation ion fluences, local disorder and defects were produced in GaP crystal. With the increase of ion fluence, Raman spectra reveal the intensity of scattering peaks gradually weakens and some scattering peaks gradually disappear, however no changes in the peak position were found. XRD measurement displays that the intensity of diffraction peaks gradually decreases with an increase in ions fluences. Result from FTIR spectra exhibits that the intensity of reflection peaks gradually increases and the FWHM of reflection peaks broadens. These phenomena indicate that, the irradiation of heavy-ion Fe produces defects and disorder in GaP crystal, leading to a local amorphization.