1996年 第13卷 第2期
近几年来，北京大学重离子物理研究所低能核物理理论研究组，对极端条件下原子核性质研究取得了一些成果，其中包括原子核的高自旋态、超形变带及远离β稳定线核的性质.The recent results on the studies of nuclear properties in exotic conditions are briefly presented.These studies include high spin states and nuclei far from the β stability line.
在分析核内运动，特别是其中非核子自由度的基础上提出了一个分三步发展原子核基本理论的ＡＢＣ计划. We emphasize that to develop a fundamental nuclear theory one has to consider various non nucleon degrees of freedom in nuclei and to make the theory relatvistic.A three step ABC Plan for this Purpose is proposed. The A pan is to reform the relatiivistic hadron field theory by taking the finite baryon size into account. We call finite size baryons atoms in contrast with points. The fundamental nuclear theory in this form is therefore a quantum atom dynamics(QAD). The B plan is to reform the...
介绍开展中子核反应研究和数据测量的重要性，并扼要介绍了在北京大学重离子物理研究所４．５ＭＶ静电加速器单色中子源上开始的中子实验工作 .In this paper,the importance of nuclear reaction research and nuclear data measurement is illutrated, and the neutron experiments on the 4.5MV Van de Graaff accelerator, at Peking University are briefly introduced.
近年来，北京大学技术物理系开展了重离子特别是中能重离子核反应机制方面的研究工作，且取得了一些进展.The recent progress is presented concerning some studies on the mechanisms of nuclear reactions induced by heavy ions at the department of technical physics of Peking University.
简要地介绍了北京大学技术物理系和重离子物理研究所近年来在低能实验核物理及其应用方面的部分研究工作.Some recent studies on the low energy experimental nuclear physics and its applications at the Department of Technicsal Physics and the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics of Peking University are beiefly introduced in this paper.
北京大学重离子物理研究所和技术物理系研制的加速器质谱计于１９９２年圆满建成并投入使用．在两年多的运行中，性能不断得到改进，并取得了大量的应用成果．简要介绍其性能特点、运行情况和应用概况.The accelerator mass spectrometry studied by the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics and the Department of Technical Physics,Peking University,was successfully manufactured in 1992.In the two years routine operation,the machine performances have been improved and some application achievements have been obtained.In this paper feature of the machine,opeartion and some applications are given.
通过对国产铌腔的研制和探索，掌握了超导腔的设计制造和实验研究的关键技术，进行铌材改进后获得了铌腔后处理的特定工艺．在２．５Ｋ温度时，国产铌腔的加速梯度超过１０ＭＶ／ｍ，品质因素１０９． The research progress of superconduting cavity made in Chinese Niobium,with the emphasis on the quality improvement of the Niobium andcorresponding superconducting cavity are introduced. The designing of the cavity geometry, analysing of the RF property of the Niobium as well as its mechanical quality are described. Special procedure of the cavity fabricating and its post processing are set. Experimentally, we got the gradient of 10MV/m and the quality factor of 10 9 at 2.5K.
采用激光驱动光阴级和１００ｋＶ直流加速间隙可产生宽度为５０～１００ｐｓ的高亮度脉冲电子束．该装置主要由光阴极制备室和直流加速间隙组成．可以用化学气相沉积、离子注入和离子束增强沉积等方法制备光阴极．通过用ＥＧＵＮ和ＰＯＩＳＳＯＮ程序模拟，给出了直流加速间隙的物理设计．光源采用一台主被动双锁的Ｎｄ：ＹＡＧ激光器，可工作在１０６４、５３２和２６６ｎｍ三个波长，重复频率为１０Ｈｚ．此外，也论述了光阴极制备室与超与腔结合的超导高亮度注入器的有关问题. A DC high brigytness laser driven by photoemissive electron gun is being developed at Peking University,in order to produce 50～100ps electron bunches of high quality.The gun consists of a photocathode preparation chamber and a DC acceleration cavity.Different ways of fabricating photocathode,such as chemical vapor deposition,ion beam implantation and ion beam enhanced deposition,can be adopted.The acceleration gap is designed with the aid of simulation codes EGUN and POISSON,100kV DC high voltage is...
简单介绍了北京大学在高频四极场（ＲＦＱ）加速器方面的研究情况和取得的成果，包括束流动力学研究、ＲＦＱ腔的高频特性及工艺加工可行性等．现已研制成功一台２６ＭＨｚ整体分离环型ＲＦＱ加速器，其极间电压达８２ｋＶ，把Ｎ＋离子从２０ｋｅＶ加速到３００ｋｅＶ．证实了这种加速器的优点和可行性. The advances and achievements of studies on an integral split ring (ISR) RFQ accelerator for heavy ions at Peking University are presented in this paper.These include beam dynamics of RFQ accelerator,RF characteristics of RFQ cavity and studies of technological design.A 26MHz Prototype ISR RFQ resonator has been built .The voltage of 82kV between the electrodes and the acceleration of N + beam from 20keV to 300 keV have been achieved.These have proed the feasibility and advantage of this...
提出了用ＲＦＱ加速器同时加速同荷质比正负离子的设想，阐述了原理可行性与将进行的实验验证. A tentative plan of accelerating negative and positive ions with equal q/m in a RFQ accelerator at the same time is introudced,its feasibility in principle and draft tests are also given.
１９８７年以来，三台静电加速器设备在北京大学重离子物理实验室陆续建成并投入使用，在科研教学中发挥了重要作用．特别在中子测量、加速器质谱计应用和核分析技术应用等方面取得了进展．在加速器的性能改进和功能开发方面也做了许多工作.The 5SDH 2 1.7MV tandem,EN 6MV tandem and PKU 4.5 Van de Graff have been operated in succession at Institute of Heavy Ion Physics,Peking University since 1987.The fuction,application and improvment work of the machinces are described separatly in this paper.
介绍了两种引出负离子的永磁ＰＩＧ离子，它们可用于直接引出电子亲合势较大元素的负离子，如Ｈ、Ｃ、Ｏ、Ｆ等负离子．当两者均要用ＬａＢ６阴极，在饱和引出电压下，永磁边引出ＰＩＧ源可获得Ｏ－离子１３０μＡ、Ｆ－离子７５μＡ，功率消耗分别为１１０Ｗ和２８０Ｗ．永磁端引出ＰＩＧ源可引出Ｈ－离子５０μＡ，Ｏ－和Ｆ－离子１～２ｍＡ，而功耗仅分别约为４０、５０和１００Ｗ. Two kinds of permanent magnet PIG ion sources are introduced, which can be used for direct extracting negative ions of the elements with larger elctron affinity, such as H, C, O, F etc. By using LaB 6 cathodes and at saturation extraction voltage, 130 μA of O - and 75 μA of F - ions were extracted from the side extraction PIG ion source, its power consumption is 110 and 280W, respectively, and for end extraction PIG ion source, 50μA of H -, 1～2mA of O - and F - ion beam have been...
对６００ｋＶ束流脉冲化系统设计、粒子动力学计算、聚束腔的性能测量、有关高频电子学系统和聚束器载束实验的初步结果作了论述.The paper briefly describes the design of the beam pulsing system for the 600 kV DC accelerator, the beam dynamics calculations, the property measurements for the buncher cavity, the relevant rf electronics system and the initial beam loading experiments for the buncher.
对北京大学重离子物理研究所进行的团簇产生设备的研制、团簇的产生及其性质的研究进行描述．利用自行研制的一台气体载带溅射原子经液氮冷凝的团簇产生设备，成功地制备了多种金属及其化合物团簇，发现了支撑Ｃｕ团簇的“收缩效应”，最大收缩率为４．７％．研究了加速电压对ＩＣＢＤ薄膜的影响．发现加速电压越高，形成的Ｃｕ薄膜越光滑．当加速电压达到１８ｋＶ时，得到表面非常平滑的薄膜. By using liquid nitrogen cooling of sputtered atoms in flowing gas, a cluster machine has been designed. With the machine, kinds of metal and metalnitride clusters have been successfully generated. Cu cluster s micro structure has been studied. Micrography and electron diffraction of different size Cu clusters show:Cu clusters smaller than 8nm in diameter are amorphous,Cu tu culsters larger than 8nm in diameter are in crystal form. Lattice constant of Cu cluster is ...
综述了离子束材料实验室在高剂量与高能量离子注入研究方面的新进展，包括高剂量离子注入动态靶的模拟计算ＭＡＣＡ程序、多能离子注入深度分布计算、ＭｅＶ离子引起的ＨＯＰＧ表面操作、ＭｅＶ离子诱变右旋糖酐生产菌种、高剂量离子注入在４５号钢表面形成耐腐蚀的保护层以及在高速工具钢上形成含有大量超细碳化物的耐磨层. The development of high dose ion implantation and high energy ion implantation at the Ion Beam Application Group of IHIP in recent years is reviewed.
对在北京大学技术物理系核物理与核技术实验室１．７ＭＶ串列加速器上进行的有关离子原子碰撞内壳层电离机制的研究进展作了简介.The work done in recent years at 1 7MV tandem in Lab. of Nuclear and Technology, Peking University, including recent work on heavy ion induced X ray emission, quasi molecular vacancy sharing, alingment effect and cluster beam effect of multi ionization, are briefly summaried.
总结了作者关于电离辐射和离子注入技术在工程塑料、生物医用高分子材料改性研究方面的最新成果.The study on some applications of γ irradiation and ion implantation technology in modification of polymeric materials is briefly summerilzed. The main results obtained recently in our lab. on modification of engineering plastics, bioengineering and biomedical polymers by γ irradiation and biomedical materials by ion implantation are given.
对单光子发射型计算机断层（ＳＰＥＣＴ）方面的研制和开展ＳＰＥＣＴ影像研究进行了描述．介绍了ＳＰＥＣＴ的基本组成、性能指标和临床软件．为提高ＳＰＥＣＴ影像的质量，提出了ＳＰＥＣＴ分辨率和灵敏度方面所作改进的建议和计算机仿真在ＳＰＥＣＴ中的应用.This paper introduces the research and development of the SPECT and its imaging research, the basic parts, performances and clinical software in the newly researched and developed SPECT system. The suggestions on the further improvement upon the resolution and sensitivity of the SPECT and the application in the computer simulation in the SPECT researches are also made for improving the quality of SPECT imaging.
用放射性核素标记抗肿瘤单克隆抗体（ＭｃＡＢ）一直是核药物化学组的研究重点．研究出一个制备超纯无载体１１１Ｉｎ的方法．通过双功能连接剂ＤＴＰＡ环酐将其标记于抗肿瘤ＭｃＡＢ在临床实验中获得成功．用直接标记法制备的９９Ｔｃ标ＭｃＡＢ片段在诊断胃癌方面性能优良．此外，还进行了两种标记法的方法学及Ｔｃ和Ｒｅ的配位化学研究．用加速器质谱计（ＡＭＳ）研究化学物质与ＤＮＡ的加合作用及其遗传毒性是另一个研究方向．已测定过的化学物质有烟碱、烟碱衍生物ＮＮＫ、抗蚜威等，灵敏度达到每１００亿个ＤＮＡ分子中１个加合物.The labeling of anti tumor monoclonalantibodies (McAB) with radionuclides has been regarded as our main aim in the past 12 years. A procedure of preparation of ultrapure carrier free 111 In has been developed. Anti tumor McABs labeled with 111 In via a bifunctional conjugating agent (DTPA cycloanhydride) were used successfully in clinical trials. 99m Tc labeled McAB fragments prepared by a direct method were also proved very powerful in diagnosis of gastric carcinoma...